/PROP/TYPE14 (SOLID)
Block Format Keyword This property set is used to define the general solid property set.
Format
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

/PROP/TYPE14/prop_ID/unit_ID or /PROP/SOLID/prop_ID/unit_ID  
prop_title  
I_{solid}  I_{smstr}  I_{ale}  I_{cpre}  I_{tetra10}  I_{npts}  I_{tetra4}  I_{frame}  d_{n}  
q_{a}  q_{b}  h  ${\lambda}_{v}$  ${\mu}_{v}$  
$\Delta {t}_{\mathrm{min}}$  Vdef_min  Vdef_max  APS_max  COL_min 
(1)  (2)  (3)  (4)  (5)  (6)  (7)  (8)  (9)  (10) 

Ndir  sphpart_ID 
Definition
Field  Contents  SI Unit Example 

prop_ID  Property
identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

unit_ID  Unit Identifier. (Integer, maximum 10 digits) 

prop_title  Property
title. (Character, maximum 100 characters) 

I_{solid}  Solid elements formulation
flag. 1
2
(Integer) 

I_{smstr}  Small strain formulation
flag. 4
(Integer) 

I_{ale}  Framework. 12


I_{cpre}  Constant pressure
formulation flag. 5 Only valid when I_{solid} = 14, 17, 18 or 24.
(Integer) 

I_{tetra10}  10 node tetrahedral
element formulation flag. 7
(Integer) 

I_{npts}  Number of integration
points. 6 Only valid for I_{solid} =14, 16 (Integer) = ijk (Default = 222): 2 < i,j,k < 9 for I_{solid} =14 2 < i,k < 3, 2 < j < 9 for I_{solid} =16 Where,


I_{tetra4}  4 node tetrahedral element
formulation flag. 7
(Integer) 

I_{frame}  Element coordinate system
formulation flag. 8 Only valid for 2D quad elements,
and brick elements with I_{solid} ==1, 2, or
17. I_{solid}= 14 or 24 always use the corotational formulation.
(Integer) 

d_{n}  Numerical damping for
stabilization. 9 Only valid for I_{solid}=24. Default = 0.1 (Real) 

q_{a}  Quadratic bulk
viscosity. Default = 1.10 (Real) Default = 0.0 for /MAT/LAW70 

q_{b}  Linear bulk
viscosity. Default = 0.05 (Real) Default = 0.0 for /MAT/LAW70 

h  Hourglass viscosity
coefficient. Only valid for I_{solid}= 1, 2. Default = 0.10 (Real), must be 0.0 < h < 0.15 

${\lambda}_{v}$  Numerical Navier Stokes
viscosity
${\lambda}_{v}$
. Default = 0.0 (Real) 

${\mu}_{v}$  Numerical Navier Stokes
viscosity
${\mu}_{v}$
. Default = 0.0 (Real) 

$\Delta {t}_{\mathrm{min}}$  Minimum time step for
solid elements. Only available when using /DT/BRICK/CST or /DT/BRICK/DEL. Default = 0.0 (Real) 
$\left[\text{s}\right]$ 
Vdef_min  Minimum volume ratio
(V/Vo) to delete solid element. If Ndir ≥
1, the element is deleted and SPH elements are
activated. Default = 0 

Vdef_max  Maximum volume ratio
(V/Vo) to delete solid element. If Ndir ≥
1, the element is deleted and SPH elements are
activated. Used only if different from 0. Default = 0 

ASP_max  Maximum aspect ratio to
delete solid element. If Ndir ≥
1, the element is deleted and SPH elements are
activated. Used only if different from 0. Default = 0 

COL_min  Minimum collapse value to
delete solid element. If Ndir ≥
1, the element is deleted and SPH elements are
activated. Default = 0 

Ndir  Number of
particle/direction for each solid element. 11
(Integer) 

sphpart_ID  Part identifier describing
the SPH properties for Sol2SPH. (Integer) 
Example
#RADIOSS STARTER
#12345678910
/UNIT/2
unit for prop
# MUNIT LUNIT TUNIT
kg mm ms
#12345678910
/PROP/SOLID/1/2
Solid
# Isolid Ismstr Iale Icpre Itetra10 Inpts Itetra4 Iframe dn
24 1 0 1 2 0 3 1 0
# q_a q_b h LAMBDA_V MU_V
0 0 0 0 0
# deltaT_min vdef_min vdef_max ASP_max COL_min
0 0 0 0 0
# NdirSPHPART_ID
0 0
#12345678910
#ENDDATA
#12345678910
Comments
 I_{solid}  Solid elements formulation
 For most situations, I_{solid} = 24 (HEPH) hexahedral element is the best compromise between computational cost and quality.
 Elements formulation I_{solid} = 1, 2, and 24 are reduced integration elements with 1 Gauss integration point where as I_{solid} = 14, 17, and 18 are fullyintegrated elements.
 I_{solid} = 24 (HEPH) solid elements use a physical hourglass formulation that is similar to the hourglass formulation used by I_{shell} = 24 (QEPH) shell elements. This hourglass formulation returns better results than the viscous hourglass formulation used by I_{solid} = 1 or 2.
 I_{solid} = 18, the I_{cpre} and I_{smstr} default values
depend on the material and use these recommended values:
Default Material Laws I_{cpre} = 2 2, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, 36, 52, 79, 81, 84 I_{cpre} = 3 12, 14, 15, 25, 28, 50, 53, 68, and If $\nu \le 0.49$ , then 1, 13, 16, 33, 34, 35, 38, 40, 41, 70 and 77
70, 77I_{cpre} = 1 All other laws and If $\nu \ge 0.49$ , then 1, 13, 16, 33, 34, 35, 38, 40, 41, 70, and 77
I_{smstr} = 10 38, 42, 62, 69, 82, 88, 92, 94, 95, 100 and 101 I_{smstr} = 11 70 I_{smstr} = 1 28 I_{smstr} = 2 All other laws  For very soft viscoelastic or hyperelastic materials I_{solid} = 5 can improve the material stability with bigger hourglass stiffness.
 2D Quad elements.The following element formulations are supported for 2D analysis when using /QUAD elements
 I_{solid} = 2, 17
 I_{smstr}= 4
 I_{frame}= 1, 2
 I_{cpre}= 1, 2.
 When using the automatic setting option I_{smstr} = I_{cpre} = I_{frame}=1, the values for these options are defined using the best options based on the element formulation, element type, and material. Alternatively, defining I_{smstr} = I_{cpre} = I_{frame}=2 will overwrite the values for these options defined in this property with the best value (refer to /DEF_SOLID) based on element type and material law. To see the values defined by Radioss, review the “PART ELEMENT/MATERIAL PARAMETER REVIEW” section of the Starter output file.
 I_{smstr}  Small strain formulation flag
 For small strain formulations (I_{smstr} =1, 3, 11) or elements that switch to small strain formulation (I_{smstr} =2, 12), the strains and stresses calculated in the material laws are engineering strains and stresses. Otherwise, they are true strains (or total strains) and Cauchy stresses.
 I_{smstr} = 10, 12 are only compatible with these material laws 1, 38, 42, 62, 69, 82, 88, 92, 94, 100 and 101 that use total strain formulation. Generally, the Left CauchyGreen strain is used. For User laws, the deformation gradient tensor and the right stretch tensor could be used.
 I_{smstr} = 11 has been developed for Law 70 (foam), it is only compatible with material laws using engineering total strain (for example, Laws 1, 38 and 70). Generally, more stable results can be obtained when I_{smstr} =1.
 I_{smstr}=12 can be used with /DT/BRICK/CST to automatically switch elements with a low time step from Lagrange type total strain to total small total strain (I_{smstr} = 11). However, there can be a slight discontinuity of stresses during the change in strain formulation.
 The Radioss Engine option /DT/BRICK/CST only works with solid properties that use I_{smstr} = 2 or 12.
 Starting with version 2017, Lagrangian elements whose volume becomes
negative during a simulation will automatically switch strain
formulations to allow the simulation to continue. When this occurs, a
WARNING message will be printed in the Engine output file. The following
options are supported.
Element Type and Formulation Strain Formulation Negative Volume Handling Method /BRICK I_{solid} = 1, 2, 14, 17, 18, 24
/TETRA4, I_{tetra4} = 1000
/TETRA10, I_{tetra10} = 1000
Full geometric nonlinearities. I_{smstr} = 2, 4
Switch to small strain using element shape from cycle before negative volume. Lagrange type total strain. I_{smstr} = 10, 12
Lagrange type total strain with element shape at time=0.0.
 I_{cpre}  Constant pressure
formulation flag
 I_{cpre}=1 is used to prevent volumetric locking in incompressible or quasiincompressible material. For this case, the stress tensor is decomposed into a spherical and deviatoric part. Reduced integration is then used for the spherical part so that the pressure remains constant.
 I_{cpre}=2 is only available for elastoplastic laws. To prevent volume locking, additional terms with Poisson’s coefficient are added to the strain. When the material is still elastic and thus compressible, the Poisson’s coefficient terms are small. As the material becomes plastic and thus incompressible, the Poisson’s coefficient terms increase to prevent volume locking. Refer to the Radioss Theory Manual for additional explanation.
 I_{npts}  Number of integration
points
 For I_{solid} = 14 and 16, the recommended value is I_{npts} = 222.
 Tetra elements
 The I_{solid} flag is not used with 4node (/TETRA4) or 10node (/TETRA10) tetrahedron elements.
 4nodes tetrahedron with the ALE framework is compatible with I_{tetra4} = 1000 or I_{tetra4} = 3 only.
 The quadratic tetrahedron element (/TETRA10) with I_{tetra10} = 2 uses the same the original integration scheme and shape functions with the time step of the linear tetrahedron (using /DT1/BRICK), using the dynamic condensation. The method implementation is proprietary.
 The incompatibility list
of I_{tetra10}=2 as:
 AMS
 Implicit
 If the middle node of Tetra10 was defined as dependent node of /RBE3, /MPC or /RLINK.
 If the middle node of Tetra10 was defined alone as secondary node of /RBODY, /RBE2.
 If the middle node of Tetra10 was defined alone in /BCS, /IMPACC, /IMPVEL or /IMPDIS.
 For
/INTER/TYPE2 with kinematic types: Spot_{flag} < 25 and =30, if one of the corner nodes was defined as
secondary node.
(It is recommended to use Spot_{flag}=27 or 28 of interface TYPE2 with I_{tetra10}=2.)
 I_{frame}  Element coordinate
system formulation flag
 When corotational formulation is used (I_{frame} = 2), the stress tensor is computed in a corotational coordinate system. If large rotations are involved, this formulation is more accurate but does have a higher computational cost. It is recommended in cases of elastic or viscoelastic problems where shear deformation is important.
 d_{n}  Numerical
damping and h  hourglass viscosity coefficient
 Numerical damping d_{n} is used in the hourglass stress calculation for I_{solid} = 24 (HEPH) solid elements. The energy from numerical damping is included in the time history internal energy output.
 When comparing results between I_{solid} = 24 and I_{solid} = 1 or 2 where, d_{n}=h, the numerical damping is $\left(2/3\right)\times {10}^{3}$ times smaller for I_{solid} = 24 than I_{solid} =1 or 2.
 The numerical Navier Stokes viscosity model is available for all material laws. Note that the output viscosity stress is available just for users law and I_{solid} =1 (In time history output the viscosity stress is added in the stress).
 Output for postprocessing
 For postprocessing solid element stress, refer to /ANIM/BRICK/TENS for animation and /TH/BRICK for plot files.
 In plot and animation files, stress tensor is attached to the corotational frame.
 Solid to SPH properties (Sol2SPH)
 When using Sol2SPH, solid elements are converted to SPH particles when a solid is deleted due to contact, material failure criteria, or time step criteria.
 The number activated of SPH particles depends on parameter Ndir. The particles properties are computed using the sphpart_ID part number.
 The option Sol2SPH is only compatible with I_{solid} = 1, 2 or 24, I_{frame} = 1 or 2.
 The option I_{del}= 1 or 2 in interface /INTER/TYPE7 needs to be set.
 Both material laws for solid and SPH parts must be of the same type.
 Flag I_{ale} is replacing the old method to enable ALE framework with /ALE/MAT or EULER framework with /EULER/MAT.
 Quality criteria are
calculated as follows:
 Maximum Volume Ratio: If $Vr=\frac{V}{{V}_{0}}<Vdef\_min$ , then element is deleted;
 Maximum Volume Ratio: If $Vr=\frac{V}{{V}_{0}}>Vdef\_max$ , then element is deleted;
 Maximum Aspect Ratio: If
$ASP=\frac{{l}_{max}}{{l}_{min}}>AS{P}_{max}$
, then element is deleted with:
 Hexa: l_{max} calculated as max length of the 3 medians of the element
 Tetra: l_{max} calculated as the square root of the max area
 Solid: l_{min} calculated as l_{c}
 Tshell: l_{max} calculated as max length of the 2 medians of the element
 Tshell: l_{min} calculated as the area of the middle surface divided by l_{max}
 Minimum Tetra Collapse: If $COL=\frac{{l}_{\mathrm{min}}}{{l}_{\mathrm{max}}}<CO{L}_{\mathrm{min}}$ , then element is deleted.