# Propagation Models

For the prediction, topographical databases (digital elevation model, DEM) are needed. They
consist of binary stored pixel data with an arbitrary resolution, for example, 50m x 50 m.
However, the resolution in one database must be constant. Also morphological data can be
considered by empirical correction values to improve the accuracy of the model. This data
is also stored as binary data. The different morphological properties are coded, for
example:

- urban
- suburban
- forest
- water
- acre

## Propagation Models

WinProp offers various wave propagation models for rural and
suburban environments.

- Empirical models without consideration of the terrain profile between transmitter
and receiver
- Hata-Okumura model
- Empirical two ray model
- ITU P.1546 model

- Basic topographical profile prediction models (2D vertical plane models)
- Deterministic two ray model
- Longley-Rice model
- Parabolic equation method
- Knife edge diffraction model

- Deterministic 3D models (3D topography)
- Rural dominant path model
- Rural ray-tracing model

^{1}Report ITU-R SM.2028-2

Monte Carlo simulation methodology for the use in sharing and compatibility studies between different radio services or systems, section 6.1, published June 2017.