# Summary of Wave Propagation Models for Rural/Suburban Scenarios

A summary of the rural/suburban wave propagation models in tabular format.

Table 1. Summary of the supported rural/suburban wave propagation empirical models in WinProp.
Model

Okumura-Hata

with optional Hata Extension

Empirical Two Ray

(ETR)

ITU P.1546
Type Empirical Empirical Empirical
Valid for
• Frequency: 30 MHz to 3 GHz
• h_tx: 30 m to 200 m
• h_rx: 1 m to 10 m
• d: 0.1 km to 40 km
• Frequency > 30 MHz
• h_tx: no limit (terrestrial)
• h_rx: no limit (terrestrial)
• d: no fixed limit
• Frequency: 30 MHz to 4 GHz
• h_tx < 3000 m
• h_rx: 1 m to 20 m
• d: 0.1 km to 1000 km
Accuracy Reasonable accuracy Reasonable accuracy Reasonable accuracy
Computation Time Very short Very short Very short

Preprocessing

of Database

No No No

Problem Type

& Size

Radio coverage simulation for various area types rural/suburban/urban etc. Radio coverage simulation to compute average pathloss / signal level

Method for point-to-area predictions for terrestrial services.

It is intended for the use of tropospheric radio circuits over land, water, or mixed land-water paths.

Considers Considers only the transmitter and receiver heights plus optional clutter map with individual properties (losses/heights) per clutter class Model considers the transmitter and receiver heights and includes multipath propagation into account Model considers the transmitter and receiver heights, corrections for the time & location variability and for mixed land/sea paths
Limitations

Model does not consider the terrain profile.

If a hill is located between the transmitter and receiver, use knife-edge diffraction to include the shadowing effect.

Computes the path loss based on the assumption that the direct ray and the ground-reflected ray would exist using the defined propagation exponents.

Model does not consider the terrain profile. If a hill is located between the transmitter and receiver, use knife-edge diffraction to include the shadowing effect.

The model does not consider the terrain profile.

If a hill is located between the transmitter and receiver, use knife-edge diffraction to include the shadowing effect.

Table 2. Summary of the supported rural/suburban wave 2D vertical plane propagation models in WinProp.
Model

Deterministic Two Ray

(DTR)

Longley-Rice

or

Irregular Terrain Model

(ITM)

Parabolic Equation

(PE)

Type 2D vertical plane model 2D vertical plane model Full wave approach in 2D vertical plane
Valid for
• Frequency > 30 MHz
• Frequency > 30 MHz
• h_rx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• d: no fixed limit
• Frequency: 20 MHz to 40 GHz
• Path lengths: 1 km to 2000 km
• Frequency > 30 MHz
• h_tx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• h_rx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• d: no limit
Accuracy Good accuracy Reasonable accuracy High accuracy
Computation Time Short Short Long

Preprocessing

of Database

No No No

Problem Type

& Size

Radio coverage simulation when the superposition of the direct and the ground-reflected ray is dominating Radio coverage simulation for larger areas, e.g. frequency planning; mainly in television broadcasting Radio coverage simulation over terrain (often used for aerospace & defense)
Considers Model computes the direct ray and the ground-reflected ray using ray optical algorithms and performs either coherent or power superposition of these two rays

Model considers the transmitter and receiver heights.

The Point-to-Point mode takes into account the terrain elevation profile between the transmitter and receiver.

The Area Mode estimates the terrain profile using empirical medians.

Considers the propagation over terrain, forward-scattering and the properties of the ground.

Optional consideration of a predefined height depending permittivity.

Limitations

Model does not consider the terrain profile.

If a hill is located between the transmitter and receiver, use knife-edge diffraction to include the shadowing effect.

Model considers the ground properties and the defined percentages for time & location variability

The results of the PE are valid up to a certain propagation angle in respect to the horizon lies within -40° up to +40° for the Wide Angle Parabolic Equation (WAPE).

Backward-orientated effects (such as reflections at the opposite hillside) are not considered.

Table 3. Summary of the supported rural/suburban wave deterministic propagation models in WinProp.
Model

Rural 3D

Dominant Path Model

(DPM)

Rural Ray-Tracing

(RRT)

3D Ray Launching
Type Deterministic Deterministic in 2D vertical plane Deterministic
Valid for
• Frequency: 30 MHz to 100 GHz
• h_tx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• h_rX: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• d: no fixed limit
• Frequency: 30 MHz to 100 GHz
• h_tx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• h_rX: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• d: no fixed limit
• Frequency: 30 MHz to 100 GHz
• h_tx: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• h_rX: no fixed limit (terrestrial)
• d: no fixed limit
Accuracy Good accuracy Good accuracy High accuracy
Computation Time Short Medium Long

Preprocessing

of Database

No The topography data (in pixel format) must be converted to 3D vector data format No

Problem Type

& Size

Radio coverage simulation for large areas to compute average pathloss/signal level Radio coverage simulation for large areas where the multipath situation is relevant Radio coverage simulation for individual points (radio links or radar sensors) or LOS areas
Considers The dominant propagation path is computed by using a full 3D approach plus optional clutter map with individual properties (losses/heights) per clutter class.

The model computes various rays including reflections and diffractions in the vertical plane.

Optionally 3D scattering from topography or 3D interaction at additional 3D vector objects can be enabled.

The model considers reflections and scattering in 3D.
Limitations The ground-reflected path as well as multipath effects are not considered

The model takes a limited number of interactions into account and may not reach all prediction points by itself.

Activate the additional knife edge diffraction to predict propagation results for remaining locations.

No combination with multiple knife edge diffraction possible.

The diffraction at topo obstacles is not yet supported, which limits the use of the model to the LOS area.