# /H3D/SHELL

Engine Keyword Generate H3D contour output results for /SHELL and /SH3N shell elements.

## Format

/H3D/SHELL/`Keyword3`/`Keyword4`/`Keyword5`

#optional next line(s) that lists the parts to save results for.

`part_ID`_{1} ...
`part_ID`_{N}

## Examples

```
/H3D/SHELL/TENS/STRESS/PLY=1/NPT=ALL
/H3D/SHELL/TENS/STRESS/NPT=ALL/PLY=1
```

`/H3D/SHELL/TENS/STRESS/NPT=ALL`

```
/H3D/SHELL/ENER
356 293
```

`/H3D/SHELL/USER/NPT=ALL/UVAR=12`

## Definition

## Comments

- The syntax /H3D/ELEM/Keyword3/Keyword4/Keyword5 is also valid.
- When PART IDs are listed after the /H3D/SHELL line the specified results will output only for those parts.
- Output can be a, scalar, vector,
or tensor as defined in the following tables.
Table 1. Scalar Output Keyword3 Keyword4 Keyword5 Description `ALPHA``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL

Shear angle alpha of material /MAT/LAW58 in degrees. `AMS`Elements using `AMS`timestep due to /DT/CST_AMS.`BULK`Artificial Viscosity `DAM1`,`DAM2`,`DAM3`Principal damage values in local orthotropic skew direction 1, 2 or 3 for materials LAW15 and LAW25. `DAMA``MEMB``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Maximum of damage over time of all /FAIL criteria acting on one material. Refer to the specific /FAIL law used for how damage is calculated. `TMAX`Maximum of damage over time, integration points and failure models. `DAMG``MEMB``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Mean damage over thickness integration points (only for coupled damage models). 8 `ID`=`mat_ID`(mandatory)`MODE`=- I or ALL

`PLY`=- I or ALL

`LAYER`=- I or ALL

`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Damage modes for the given material `mat_ID`as global damage or for each damage model (adding`MODE`= I or ALL).(for

`MODE`output, refer to Comment 14)Available for materials LAW2, LAW25, LAW27, LAW36, LAW72, LAW76, LAW104 + /FAIL/GURSON, LAW122.

`DAMINI``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Maximum damage initiation variable among all failure criteria using initiation variable before computing stress softening (/FAIL/INIEVO). `DENS`Density `DOMAIN`SPMD domain number of an element. `DT`Element timestep `EINT`Element internal energy `EINTV`Element internal energy per unit volume `ENER`Specific energy density (internal energy divided by the element mass) `TMAX`Maximum specific energy density over time `EPSD`Equivalent strain rate `EPSP``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Plastic strain `ERROR``THICK`Estimated error on shell thickness `FAIL``PLY`=- I or ALL

Number of failed layers for /PROP/TYPE10, /PROP/TYPE11, /PROP/TYPE17, /PROP/TYPE51, /PCOMPP, /MAT/LAW15 and /MAT/LAW25. For the other property sets and material laws the values are: no failure =0 and element failed =1. `FAILURE``ID`=`fail_ID`or ALL(mandatory)

`MODE`= I or ALL`PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I or ALL

Damage of a specific failure criterion references by its optional identifier `fail_ID`defined in the Starter file.(for

`MODE`output, refer to Comment 14)`FLDF``MEMB``LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

FLD damage factor indicator. 6 `FLDZ``MEMB``LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

FLD failure zone factor for the FLD failure model. 7 - = 1
- Loose metal
- = 2
- High wrinkle
- = 3
- Compression
- = 4
- Safe
- = 5
- Marginal
- = 6
- Failure

`GROUP`Internal group identifier `HC_DSSE_F``MEMB``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

`HC_DSSE`damage factor indicator. 12`HC_DSSE_Z``MEMB``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

`HC_DSSE`failure zone factor for the`HC_DSSE`failure model. 13- HC_DSSE_Z = 1
- (Safe)
- HC_DSSE_Z = 2
- (Necking)
- HC_DSSE_Z = 3
- (Failure)

`HOURGLASS`Hourglass energy per mass unit `MASS`Element mass `MDS`MDS user variables Automatic selection of user variable to output according to MDS law that is used.

(1 value per user variable and per ply in case of stack and ply)

`MDS_VAR`=- DEF or ALL (mandatory)

`PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I or ALL

MDS user variables `NL_EPSD``NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Non-local plastic strain rate (only if /NONLOCAL/MAT is activated) 10 `NL_EPSP``NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Non-local plastic strain (only if /NONLOCAL/MAT is activated) 10 `NXTF``MEMB``LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Instability factor of /FAIL/NXT failure model `OFF`Element status. Where the result output is:- = -1
- Element is not active (it is defined in an activated rigid body).
- = 0
- Deleted element.
- Between 0 and 1
- Under failure process.
- = 1
- Active element.

`PEXT`External pressure applied on shell element coming from /PLOAD, /LOAD/PFLUID, /LOAD/PBLAST or /LOAD/PRESSURE. `PHI``MEMB``PLY`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Angle between the element system and direction 1 orthotropy `SIGEQ`Equivalent stress based on a material’s yield criteria. Some examples of yield criteria are von Mises, Hill or Barlat. `TMAX`Maximum equivalent stress based on a material’s yield criteria over time and integration points. `SIGX`,`SIGY`,`SIGZ`,`SIGXY`,`SIGYZ`,`SIGZX`Stress in specified direction `TDEL`Time at which element is deleted, due to failure defined using /FAIL criterion. Failure criteria built in materials is ignored. `TEMP`Temperature `THICK`Thickness `THIN`% thinning for shell. `TSAIWU``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Tsai Wu criterion for material /MAT/LAW15 (CHANG) and /MAT/LAW25 (COMPSH) `USER``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER
`UVAR`=- I or ALL

User material (/MAT/USERij) law output for user-defined variable `i`. Also, requests USR output for some Radioss material laws such as LAW58. USR1 output is requested using`UVAR`=1.`VONM`von Mises stress at neutral fiber `TMAX`Maximum von Mises stress at neutral fiber over time and integration points `WPLA``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Plastic work for /MAT/LAW15 (CHANG) and /MAT/LAW25 (COMPSH) Table 2. Tensor Output Keyword3 Keyword4 Keyword5 Description `TENS``BSTRESS``ID`=- n or ALL
`MEMB``BEND``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I or ALL

Backstress tensor for material /MAT/LAW36 (n=1) and /MAT/LAW78 (n=1, 2 or 3) and /MAT/LAW87 (n=1, 2, 3 or 4). `ID`=-1 returns the sum of all backstress tensors available for the element.`EPSDOT``MEMB``BEND``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I or ALL

Strain rate tensor `STRAIN``MEMB``BEND``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I, ALL, LOWER or UPPER

Strain tensor `TMAX`Strain tensor corresponding to the maximum principal strain (P1) over time and integration points. Strain tensor corresponding to the minimum principal strain (P3) over time and integration points.

`STRAIN_ENG`-- Infinitesimal total strain. Only one tensor per element. `STRESS``MEMB``BEND``PLY`=- I or ALL
`LAYER`=- I or ALL
`NPT`=- I or ALL

Stress tensor `TMAX`Stress tensor corresponding to the maximum principal stress (P1) over time and integration points. Stress tensor corresponding to the minimum principal stress (P3) over time and integration points.

- The output location in
`Keyword4`and`Keyword5`can be defined via:- NPT
- Integration points.
- LAYER
- Composite shell layer when using /PROP/TYPE11 (SH_SANDW), /PROP/TYPE10 (SH_COMP), /PROP/TYPE16 (SH_FABR).
- PLY
- Composite shell ply when using, /PROP/TYPE19 (PLY) or /PLY.
- MEMB
- Generalized membrane stresses per element. Cannot be used with NPT, LAYER or PLY options.
- BEND
- Generalized bending stresses per element. Cannot be used with NPT, LAYER or PLY options.

- Output can be requested for a specific location number (I), ALL, and in some case UPPER or LOWER. The output locations are separated by a / and can be in any order.
- The values of FLD damage factor
is equal to the ratio of the actual major principal strain value over the
forming limit curve value:$$FLDF=\frac{{\epsilon}_{major}}{{\epsilon}_{\mathrm{lim}}}$$
Where, ${\epsilon}_{\mathrm{lim}}$ is the major principal strain at failure limit from FLD diagram (

`fct_ID`in /FAIL/FLD).The FLD compares the ${\epsilon}_{major}$ and ${\epsilon}_{\mathrm{lim}}$ using the same ${\epsilon}_{minor}$ .`FLDF`may be greater than 1, if the option /FAIL/FLD,`Ifail_sh`=4 is used. In this case, the damage factor is only calculated for post-processing and no elements are deleted. - The values of FLD zone index are
defined as:
- FLDZ=6
- Failure
- FLDZ=5
- Marginal
- FLDZ=4
- Safe
- FLDZ=3
- Compression
- FLDZ=2
- High wrinkle
- FLDZ=1
- Loose metal

Where,`fct_ID`- Defined in /FAIL/FLD
- ${\epsilon}_{\mathrm{lim}}$
- Major strain as a limit from FLD diagram from
`fct_ID`in /FAIL/FLD - ${\epsilon}_{minor}$ and ${\epsilon}_{major}$
- The minimum and maximum principal strains
`R`_{ani}- Average anisotropy factor defined in FLD input in /FAIL/FLD
- $Factor\_Marginal$
- Defined in FLD input in /FAIL/FLD
- $Factor\_Loosemetal$
- Defined in FLD input in /FAIL/FLD

$$\alpha =\mathrm{arctan}\left(-\frac{{R}_{ani}}{1+{R}_{ani}}\right)$$`I_marg`- Defined in FLD input in /FAIL/FLD

- Option DAMG is
only used with coupled damage models (such as /MAT/LAW72 or
/FAIL/GURSON) to output damage over integration points.
The damage variable is normalized by its critical value to get values between 0
and 1. For instance:
- For /MAT/LAW72$${D}_{mg}=\frac{D}{{D}_{C}}$$
- For /FAIL/GURSON$${D}_{mg}=\frac{{f}_{t}}{{f}_{F}}$$

- For /MAT/LAW72
- When using global integration
(
`N`=0 in the shell property), Radioss always outputs the stress and strain only in the midplane (MEMB). - If /NONLOCAL/MAT option is activated, it is possible to output the regularized non-local plastic strain and its rate.
- The damage initiation variable /H3D/SHELL/DAMINI is used with some failure criteria such as /FAIL/INIEVO, which first computes a damage initiation criterion before computing the stress softening damage variable, which can be plotted with /H3D/SHELL/DAMA.
- For
`HC_DSSE_F`, the value of`HC_DSSE`damage factor is equal to the ratio of the actual plastic strain value over the plastic strain at failure curve value:$$HC\_DSSE\_F=\frac{{\epsilon}_{p}}{{\epsilon}_{HC}^{pr}}$$Where, ${\overline{\epsilon}}_{HC}^{pr}$ is the plastic strain at failure defined by Hosford-Coulomb curve (see /FAIL/HC_DSSE). - For
`HC_DSSE_Z`, the value of`HC_DSSE`zone index are defined as:`HC_DSSE_Z`= 1 (Safe)- Below
`HC`and`DSSE`curves `HC_DSSE_Z`= 2 (Necking)- Above
`DSSE`curves and below`HC`curve `HC_DSSE_Z`= 3 (Failure)- Above
`DSSE`and`HC`curves

- For failure criteria using
different modes (mainly for composites), such as
/FAIL/HASHIN, /FAIL/CHANG, and so on,
these different modes can be output using the
/H3D/SHELL/FAILURE option with the keyword
`MODE`. You can choose to plot a specific mode using its number I (refer to the failure criterion documentation for mode number details), or all modes withALL. The option`MODE`can be combined with`PLY`,`LAYER`and`NPT`output keywords.