Loads
Load management and configuration.
New Load Management
Introduction
Nastran and OptiStruct allow loading and boundary conditions to be defined on finite elements. These loads and boundary conditions are commonly applied as distributed loads. Because of their distributed nature, loads and boundary conditions must be carefully applied on individual FE elements. The repetitive nature of FE modeling development creates the overhead of applying loading and boundary conditions for each repetition of new mesh data. New load management aims to simplify this process and solve the problem of redefining loads.
Advantages
 Defining distributed values for loads defined on set entities
 Overhead creation and management of load entities on each FE location
 Dependency of FE locations for load creation
 Limitations of supporting complex boundary condition cards with multiple DOF definitions
 Consolidation of loads by common attributes such as SID, Magnitude, etc.
 Interrogation of loads is more powerful
 Advanced load option support:
 Applying pressure on Nodes
 Applying traction on axisymmetric elements
 Applying pressure on 1D elements based on element orientation
 Honoring solver recommendations such as Load on Set
 Enhancements to the Solver Browser to handle large numbers of loads
 A uniform way to set up a model (endtoend) through the browser
Objectives
 Supporting region independent loads
 Defining distributed values for loads defined for each FE location in a set
 Adding complete support for all solver cards mapped to classic loads
Classic Load Absorption
Loads created from the panel are called classic loads. Although classic load entities are still supported, their use is not encouraged. New load management allows you to create loads from the Solver Browser. Using the "absorbloads" command, classic load entities can be absorbed into engineering entities.
Advanced Segregation
The advanced segregation feature allows you to spawn new engineering loads from existing engineering loads based on value distribution or topology. You can set up a single load with distributed values and run the "absorbentities" command to obtain multiple meaningful and manageable loads of the same magnitude value.
Realization
A realization command is provided for those who choose to work with classic loads. The "realizefieldloads" command creates classic loads from engineering loads, although it is not the exact reversal of the absorption command.
Load Visualization
 Vector Plots – display value distribution with the direction of the load
 Advanced Contour Plots – display value distribution with interactive filters
 Contour Plots – display value distribution with respect to the entire model
Load values can be plotted at specific time stamps for curvebased time dependent loads.
Every load and constraint must be organized into one load collector, and therefore are mutually exclusive to a load collector.
Load Configurations
 Accelerations

Configuration 9  Acceleration loads allow for an acceleration (length/time^{2}) to be defined on the model.
Accelerations are displayed as a vector with the letter A at the tail end in the modeling window.
 Constraints

Configuration 3  Constraints allow for constrained degrees of freedom to be defined on the model.
Constraints are displayed with a triangle that connects to the node, with the dof numbers that apply to the node beside the triangle in the modeling window.
 Fluxes

Configuration 6  Flux loads are defined as an amount that flows through a unit area per unit time (amount/length^{2}/time). Fluxes are typically used in modeling transport phenomena such as heat transfer, mass transfer, fluid dynamics, and electromagnetism.
Fluxes are displayed as a thick arrow labeled with the word "flux" in the modeling window.
 Forces

Configuration 1  Force loads allow for a concentrated force (mass*length/time^{2}) to be applied to the model.
Forces are displayed as a vector with the letter F at the tail end in the modeling window.
 Moments

Configuration 2  Moment loads allow for a concentrated moment (length*force) to be applied to the model.
Moments are displayed with a doubleheaded vector with the letter M at the tail end in the modeling window.
 Pressures

Configuration 4  Pressure loads allow for a pressure (force*length^{2}) to be applied to the model.
For most solvers, the pressure load is considered as force/area, therefore the magnitude of the pressure is multiplied by the calculated area of the elements to which it is applied and resolved as concentrated force loads at the associated nodes.
Pressures are displayed as a vector with the letter P at the tail end in the modeling window.
 Temperatures

Configuration 5  Temperature loads allow for a concentrated temperature to be applied to the model.
Temperatures are displayed as a vertical line with the letter T at the top in the modeling window.
 Velocities

Configuration 8  Velocity loads allow for a velocity (length/time) to be applied to the model.
Velocities are displayed as a vector with the letter V at the tail end in the modeling window.
Abaqus Cards
Configuration  Solver Load  Engineering Type  Description 

FORCE  *CLOAD  Directional Force  Concentrated force 
MOMENT  *DLOAD  Directional Moment  Concentrated moment 
*DLOAD (CENTRIF)  Directional Moment  Centrifugal force with density  
*DLOAD (CENT)  Directional Moment  Centrifugal force without density  
*DLOAD (CORIO)  Directional Moment  Coriolis force  
CONSTRAINTS  *BOUNDARY  NonWeighted Constraint/Weighted Constraint 
Boundary condition 
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=DISPLACEMENT  Weighted Constraint  Enforced displacement  
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=VELOCITY  Weighted Constraint  Enforced velocity  
*BOUNDARY, TYPE=ACCELERATION  Weighted Constraint  Enforced acceleration  
*BOUNDARY, FIXED  Weighted Constraint  Fixed boundary condition for bolts  
*BOUNDARY, USER  Weighted Constraint  Userdefined boundary condition  
PRESSURE  *DLOAD (TRVEC, TRVECn)  Directional Pressure  General surface traction 
*DLOAD (TRSHR, TRSHRn)  Shear Traction  Shear surface traction  
*DLOAD (PE)  Pipe Pressure  External pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (PI)  Pipe Pressure  Internal pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (PENU)  Pipe Pressure  Nonuniform external pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (PINU)  Pipe Pressure  Nonuniform internal pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (HP, HPn)  Hydrostatic Pressure  Hydrostatic pressure load  
*DLOAD (HPE)  Pipe Pressure  Hydrostatic external pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (HPI)  Pipe Pressure  Hydrostatic internal pipe pressure  
*DLOAD (P, Pn)  Normal Pressure  Pressure load  
*DLOAD (P1, P2)  Beam Pressure  Beam pressure load  
*DLOAD (VBF)  Manufacturing  Viscous body force  
*DSLOAD (P, PNU)  Normal Pressure  Surface pressure uniform/nonuniform  
*DSLOAD (VP)  Manufacturing  Viscous pressure load  
*DSLOAD (HP)  Hydrostatic Pressure  Hydrostatic pressure load on surface  
*DSLOAD (TRVEC)  Directional Pressure  General surface traction  
*DSLOAD (TRSHR)  Shear Traction  Shear surface traction  
TEMPERATURE  *BOUNDARY  Thermal  Temperature on nodes 
*BOUNDARY, FIXED  Thermal  Fixed temperature on nodes  
*BOUNDARY, USER  Thermal  Userdefined temperature on nodes  
FLUX  *BOUNDARY  Electrical Flux  Electrical potential 
*BOUNDARY, FIXED  Electrical Flux  Fixed electrical potential  
*BOUNDARY, USER  Electrical Flux  Userdefined electrical potential  
ACCELARATION  *DLOAD (ROTA)  Directional Acceleration 
Rotational acceleration 
*DLOAD (GRAV)  Directional Acceleration 
Gravity load 
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

*BASE MOTION  Constraint  Defines scale factor and DOF for dynamic loads. 
*BOUNDARY (electric potential, dof 9)  Flux  Specifies flux boundary conditions for piezoelectric analysis. 
*BOUNDARY (structural)  Constraint  Creates structural boundary conditions. 
*BOUNDARY (temperature, dof 11) 
Temperatures  Specifies temperature boundary conditions. 
*CECHARGE  Flux  Specifies concentrated electric charges for piezoelectric analysis. 
*CECURRENT  Flux  Specifies concentrated current in electric conduction. 
*CFLUX  Flux  Specify concentrated fluxes in heat transfer or mass diffusion analyses. 
*CLOAD  Force  Creates concentrated forces. 
*CLOAD  Moment  Creates concentrated moments. 
*COUPLING  Constraint  Define a surfacebased coupling constraint 
*DECHARGE  Pressure  Distributes electric charges for piezoelectric analysis. 
*DFLUX  Pressure  Specify distributed fluxes in heat transfer or mass diffusion analyses. 
*DISTRIBUTING  Constraint  Define a distributing coupling constraint 
*DISTRIBUTING COUPLING  Elements  Specify nodes and weighting for distributing coupling elements 
*DLOAD  Pressure  Specifies distributed loads 
*FILM  Pressure  Define film coefficients and associated sink temperatures. 
*KINEMATIC  Multipoint Constraints  Define a kinematic coupling constraint 
*KINEMATIC COUPLING  Multipoint Constraints  Constrain all or specific degrees of freedom of a set of nodes to the rigid body motion of a reference node 
*MPC  Multipoint Constraints  Define multipoint constraints 
*RADIATE  Pressure  Specify radiation conditions in heat transfer analyses 
*TEMPERATURE  Temperature  Specifies predefined temperature field. 
ANSYS Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

BF  Flux  Defines a nodal body force load. 
BF_FLUE  Flux  
BF_HGEN  Flux  
BF_TEMP  Temperatures  
BFE_FLUE  Flux  Defines an element body force load. 
BFE_HGEN  Flux  
BFE_TEMP  Flux  
CE_STRUCT  Equation  
CE_THERM  Equation  
CE_MAG  Equation  
CE_ELEC  Equation  
ConvBulkTe  Pressure  
ConvFilmCo  Pressure  
D_A  Constraint  Vector magnetic potential. 
D_CONSTRNT  Constraint  Defines DOF constraints at nodes. 
D_MAG  Constraint  Scalar magnetic potential. 
D_PRES  Constraint  
D_TEMP  Temperature  
D_VOLT  Constraint  
F_FLOW  Flux  Specifies force loads at nodes. 
F_HEAT  Flux  
FLOTRAN  Pressure  Specifies "FLOTRAN data settings" as the subsequent status
topic. Note: FLOTRAN surface load label “FSI [fluidstructure interaction flag]”
is available under pressure load. You must use DOF1 to add value for this label. 
FORCE  Force  Selects the element nodal force type for output. 
FORCE2  Moment  
FSI  Pressure  
HFLUX  Pressure  
IC_A  Constraint  
IC_CONSTRN  Constraint  Specifies initial conditions at nodes. 
IC_MAG  Constraint  
IC_PRES  Constraint  
IC_TEMP  Temperature  
IC_VOLT  Constraint  
PRESSURE  Pressure  
RDSF_EMI  Pressure  
RDSF_ENCL  Pressure  
SFE 

Defines elemental surface load. Note: Structural, thermal and Fluid labels are
covered. 
SFE 

Surface load

LSDYNA Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

*BOUNDARY_CONVECTION_SET  Flux  Apply a convection boundary condition on a SEGMENT_SET for a thermal analysis. 
*BOUNDARY_CYCLIC  Constraint  Define nodes in boundary planes for cyclic symmetry. Optional ID applies to each cyclic definition. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION(Accl)  Acceleration  Define an imposed nodal motion (Acceleration, VAD=1) on a node or a set of nodes. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION(Disp)  Constraint  Define an imposed nodal motion (Displacement, VAD=2) on a node or a set of nodes. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION(Vel)  Velocity  Define an imposed nodal motion (Velocity, VAD=0) on a node or a set of nodes. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID(Accl)  Acceleration  Accelerations (VAD=1) can also be imposed on rigid bodies. If the local option is active, the motion is prescribed with respect to the local coordinate system for the rigid body. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID(Disp)  Constraint  Displacements (VAD=2, 4) can also be imposed on rigid bodies. If the local option is active, the motion is prescribed with respect to the local coordinate system for the rigid body. 
*BOUNDARY_PRESCRIBED_MOTION_RIGID(Vel)  Velocity  Velocities (VAD=0, 3) can also be imposed on rigid bodies. If the local option is active, the motion is prescribed with respect to the local coordinate system for the rigid body. 
*BOUNDARY_RADIATION_SET  Flux  Defines surface segment sets that transfer energy by radiation to the environment. 
*BOUNDARY_SPC  Constraint  Define nodal single point constraints. Supported OPTION1=NODE, SET. OPTION2=BIRTH_DEATH and OPTION3=ID. 
*BOUNDARY_TEMPERATURE  Temperature  Define temperature boundary conditions for a thermal or coupled thermal/structural analysis. Supported OPTION = NODE, SET. 
*INITIAL_TEMPERATURE  Temperature  Define initial nodal point temperatures using nodal set IDs or node numbers. This may also be used for sets in which some nodes have other velocities. Supported OPTION = NODE, SET. 
*INITIAL_VELOCITY  Velocity  Define initial nodal point velocities using nodal set ID’s. This may also be used for sets in which some nodes have other velocities. 
*INITIAL_VELOCITY_NODE  Velocity  Define initial nodal point velocities for a node. 
*INITIAL_VELOCITY_RIGID_BODY  Velocity  Define the initial translational and rotational velocities at the center of gravity (c.g.) for a rigid body or a nodal rigid body. This input overrides all other velocity input for the rigid body and the nodes which define the rigid body. 
*INITIAL_VELOCITY_GENERATION  Velocity  Define initial velocities for rotating and translating bodies. 
*LOAD_BEAM  Pressure  Apply the distributed traction load along any local axis of a beam or a set of beams. 
*LOAD_BODY (ACCELERATION)  Acceleration  Define body force loads due to a prescribed base acceleration using global axes directions. Supported OPTION = X, Y, Z. 
*LOAD_BODY (VELOCITY)  Velocity  Define body force loads due to a prescribed base angular velocity using global axes directions. Supported OPTION = RX, RY, RZ. 
*LOAD_GRAVITY_PART  Acceleration  Define gravity for individual parts. Supported OPTION = PART, SET. 
*LOAD_MASK  Pressure  Apply a distributed pressure load over a threedimensional shell part. 
*LOAD_NODE (FORCES)  Force  Apply a concentrated nodal force to a node or each node in a set of nodes. Supported OPTION = POINT, SET and DOF = 1, 2, 3, 4 (Follower). 
*LOAD_NODE (MOMENTS)  Force  Apply moments to node or each node in a set of nodes. Supported OPTION = POINT, SET and DOF = 5, 6, 7, 8 (Follower). 
*LOAD_RIGID_BODY (FORCES)  Force  Apply a concentrated nodal force to a rigid body. The force is applied at the center of mass. As an option, local axes can be defined for force directions. Supported DOF = 1, 2, 3, 4 (Follower). 
*LOAD_RIGID_BODY (MOMENTS)  Force  Apply a concentrated nodal force to a rigid body. The moment is applied around a global axis. As an option, local axes can be defined for moment directions. Supported DOF = 5, 6, 7, 8 (Follower). 
*LOAD_SEGMENT  Pressure  Apply the distributed pressure load over one triangular or quadrilateral segment defined by four, six, or eight nodes. Apply the distributed pressure load over each segment in a segment set. Supported OPTION = ID and SET. 
*LOAD_SHELL  Pressure  Apply the distributed pressure load over a single shell element or a shell element set. Supported OPTION1 = ELEMENT, SET and OPTION2 = ID. 
*LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT  Temperature  Define the constant temperature that is applied to a given nodal set. 
*LOAD_THERMAL_CONSTANT_NODE  Temperature  Define nodal temperature that remains constant for the duration of the calculation. 
*LOAD_THERMAL_LOAD_CURVE  Temperature  Nodal temperatures will be uniform throughout the model and will vary according to a load curve. 
*LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE  Temperature  Define nodal temperature using node set(s) and temperature as a function of time curve(s). 
*LOAD_THERMAL_VARIABLE_NODE  Temperature  Define nodal temperature that is variable during the calculation. 
Nastran Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

ASET  Constraints  Defines degreesoffreedom in the analysis set (aset) 
ASET1  Constraints  Defines degreesoffreedom in the analysis set (aset) 
BNDFIX1  Constraints  Defines analysis set (aset) degreesoffreedom to be fixed (bset) during generalized dynamic reduction or component mode synthesis calculations. 
BOLTFOR  Flux  
BSET1  Constraints  Defines analysis set (aset) degreesoffreedom to be fixed (bset) during generalized dynamic reduction or component mode synthesis calculations. 
CSET1  Constraints  Defines analysis set (aset) degreesoffreedom to be free (cset) during generalized dynamic reduction or component modes calculations. 
DAREA  Constraints  Defines scale (area) factors for static and dynamic loads. In dynamic analysis, DAREA is used in conjunction with RLOADi and TLOADi entries. 
DEFORM  Flux  Defines enforced axial deformation for onedimensional elements for use in statics problems. 
FORCE  Force  Requests the form and type of element force output or particle velocity output in coupled fluidstructural analysis. 
MOMENT  Moment  Defines a static concentrated moment at a grid point by specifying a scale factor and a vector that determines the direction. 
OMIT1  Constraints  Defines degreesoffreedom to be excluded (oset) from the analysis set (aset). 
PLOAD  Pressure  Defines a uniform static pressure load on a triangular or quadrilateral surface comprised of surface elements and/or the faces of solid elements. 
PLOAD1  Pressure  Defines concentrated, uniformly distributed, or linearly distributed applied loads to the CBAR or CBEAM elements at userchosen points along the axis. 
PLOAD2  Pressure  Defines a uniform static pressure load applied to CQUAD4, CSHEAR, or CTRIA3
twodimensional elements. The THRU field is supported for feinput only. On export, additional pressure cards for the range specified are written. 
PLOAD4  Pressure  Defines a pressure load on a face of a CHEXA, CPENTA, CTETRA, CTRIA3, CTRIA6,
CTRIAR, CQUAD4, CQUAD8, or CQUADR element. The THRU field is supported for feinput only. On export, additional pressure cards for the range specified are written. Unequal nodal pressures are now supported. The average pressure value is used as the magnitude of the pressure for visualization only. The individual field values, P1P4, can be viewed or edited using the card editor. Updating the magnitude of pressure from the Pressures panel will have no effect on PLOAD4 cards defined using unequal nodal pressures. 
QBDY1  Flux  Defines a uniform heat flux into CHBDYj elements. 
QSET1  Constraints  Defines generalized degreesoffreedom (qset) to be used for generalized dynamic reduction or component mode synthesis. 
QVOL  Flux  Volume Heat Addition  Defines a rate of volumetric heat addition in a conduction element. 
SPC  Constraints  Defines a set of singlepoint constraints and enforced motion (enforced
displacements in static analysis and enforced displacements, velocities or
acceleration in dynamic analysis). Constraints on nodes are supported through SPC cards. PS field in GRID card is not supported. Upon import, any PS entry on the GRID card will be converted into an SPC card. 
SPC1  Constraints  Defines a set of singlepoint constraints. Supported for feinput only. On export, equivalent SPC cards are written. Alternate format with THRU in the fifth field is supported. 
SPCD  Constraints  Defines an enforced displacement value for static analysis and an enforced motion value (displacement, velocity or acceleration) in dynamic analysis. 
SUPORT  Constraints  Defines determinate reaction degreesoffreedom in a free body. 
SUPORT1  Constraints  Defines determinate reaction degreesoffreedom (rset) in a free bodyanalysis. SUPORT1 must be requested by the SUPORT1 Case Control command. 
TIC(D)  Constraints  Transient Initial Condition  Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient analysis. 
TIC(V)  Constraints  Transient Initial Condition  Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient analysis. 
TEMP  Temperatures  Defines temperature at grid points for determination of thermal loading, temperaturedependent material properties, or stress recovery. 
TEMPBC  Temperatures  Defines the temperature boundary conditions for heat transfer analysis. 
USET  Constraints  Defines a degreeoffreedom set. 
USET1  Constraints  Defines a degreesoffreedom set. 
OptiStruct Cards
General boundary conditions, such as loads and constraints, should not be collected into specific load collectors. Organizing loads and constraints into a specific load collector may result in an error termination.
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

ASET  Constraints  Defines the boundary degreesoffreedom of a superelement assembly for matrix reduction. 
ASET1  Constraints  Defines the boundary degreesoffreedom of a superelement assembly for matrix reduction. 
BASELIN  Corrects the acceleration record to avoid displacement
shift. Note: Bulk Data Entry 

CDENST4  Defines a current density on the face of solid elements (HEXA, PENTA, TETRA,
PYRA) or on the side of shell elements (TRIA3, TRIA6, QUAD4, QUAD8) in Electrical
analysis. Note: Bulk Data Entry 

CONVECTION  Defines CHBDYE secondary elements used for thermal
conduction analysis, and also allows for CONV continuation cards to be
defined. Note: Bulk Data Entry 

CURRENT  Defines a static point current at a grid or a set of grids, by specifying a
vector, in Electrical analysis. Note: Bulk Data
Entry 

DAREA  Constraints  Defines scale (area) factors for dynamic loads. DAREA is used in conjunction with RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1, and TLOAD2 entries. 
DELAY  Constraints  Defines the time delay term τ in the equations of the dynamic loading function. DELAY is used in conjunction with RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1, and TLOAD2 entries. 
DEFORM  Flux  Defines enforced axial deformation for onedimensional elements for use in statics problems. 
DPHASE  Constraints  Defines the phase lead term $\theta $ in the equation of the dynamic loading function. DPHASE is used in conjunction with RLOAD1 and RLOAD2 entries. 
FORCE  Force  Defines a static force at a grid point or a SET of grid points by specifying a vector. 
FORCE1  Force  Used to define a static force by specification of a value and two grid points that determine the direction. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude "A") of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. Additionally, the FORCE1 entry can be defined as Follower Loads in Large Displacement Nonlinear Analysis. 
INLTVEL  Defines the Inlet velocity for Darcy Flow Analysis.  
MBFRC  Force  Defines a constant force at a grid point by specifying a vector. 
MBFRCC  Force  Defines a curve force at a grid point by specifying a vector. 
MBMNT  Moment  Defines a constant moment at a grid point by specifying a vector. 
MBMNTC  Moment  Defines a curve moment at a grid point by specifying a vector. 
MOMENT  Moment  Defines a static moment at a grid point or a SET of grid points by specifying a vector. 
MOMENT1  Moment  Defines a static moment by specification of a value and two grid points, which determine the direction. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude A) of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. 
MOTNG  Constraint  Defines a constant grid point motion. 
MOTNGC  Constraint  Defines a grid point motion vs. time by specifying a curve. 
NLENRG  Defines parameters for energy variables printout for
implicit nonlinear static and implicit nonlinear transient analyses. Note: Bulk Data Entry 

NLPRINT  Controls the printing of certain information to the
_nl.out file for nonlinear analysis. Note: Bulk Data Entry 

PLOAD  Pressure  Defines a static pressure load on a triangular or quadrilateral element. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude "A") of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. 
PLOAD1  Pressure  Defines concentrated, uniformly distributed, or linearly distributed applied loads to the CBAR or CBEAM elements or a SET of such elements at userchosen points along the axis. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude "A") of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. 
PLOAD2  Pressure  Defines a uniform static pressure load applied to twodimensional elements, or a SET of such elements. 
PLOAD4  Pressure  Defines a load on a face of a HEXA, PENTA, TETRA, PYRA, TRIA3, TRIA6, QUAD4, or QUAD8 element. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude "A") of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. Additionally, the PLOAD4 entry can be defined as Follower Loads in Large Displacement Nonlinear Analysis. 
QBDY1  Flux  Defines a uniform heat flux for CHBDYE elements. 
QVOL  Flux  Defines a rate of volumetric heat addition in a conduction element. 
SPC  Constraint  Defines sets of singlepoint constraints, enforced displacements for static analysis, and thermal boundary conditions for heat transfer analysis. 
SPCD  Constraint  Defines an enforced displacement value for static analysis, an enforced displacement, velocity or acceleration for dynamic analysis and a thermal boundary condition for heat transfer (or transient heat transfer) analysis. It can also be used to define the EXCITEID field (Amplitude "A") of dynamic loads in RLOAD1, RLOAD2, TLOAD1 and TLOAD2 Bulk Data Entries. 
SPCP  Defines the flow pressure boundary conditions for Darcy Flow Analysis.  
SUPORT  Constraint  Defines determinate reaction degreesoffreedom in a free body. 
SUPORT1  Constraint  Defines determinate reaction degreesoffreedom in a free body. 
TEMP  Temperature  Defines temperature at grid points or a SET of grid points for determination of Thermal Loading and Stress recovery. 
TIC(D) or (V)  Constraint  Defines values for the initial conditions of variables used in structural transient analysis and explicit analysis. Both displacement and velocity values may be specified at independent degreesoffreedom. 
USET  Constraint  Defines a set of degreesoffreedom. 
USET1  Constraint  Defines a set of degreesoffreedom. 
PAMCRASH Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

ACC3D /  Acceleration  Imposed accelerations 
BOUNC /  Constraints  Define boundary condition 
CONLO /  Force(1)  Concentrated nodal load 
DIS3D /  Constraints  Imposed displacement 
DIS3DM /  Constraints  Imposed minimum displacement 
DIS3DX /  Constraints  Imposed maximum displacement 
INVEL /  Velocity  Define initial velocity 
PREFA /  Pressure(1)  Pressure on shells 
RAC3D /  Acceleration  Imposed rotational acceleration 
RAN3D /  Constraints  Imposed angular rotations 
RDA3D /  Acceleration  Radial 3D boundary conditions 
RDD3D /  Constraints  
RDV3D /  Velocity  Radial 3D boundary conditions 
RVE3D /  Velocity  Imposed rotational velocities 
RWALL /  Rigid wall definition  
SECFO_PLANE /  
VEL3D /  Velocity  Imposed velocities 
Permas Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

$ADDMODES  Constraints  Definition of static mode shapes to be added to the set of eigenmodes used
for transformation to modal space. If static mode shapes will be added directly to nodes or nodesets (SOURCE=INPUT), the $ADDMODES can be created through the Constraints panel. Click sysid to specify the system regarding to which the modes shall be applied. Use the DOFTYPE button to select an option: DISP, TEMP, PRES, POTE and MATH. 
$ADDMODES  Pressure  Definition of static mode shapes to be added to the set of eigenmodes used
for transformation to modal space. If mode shapes will be applied based on the natural deformation of elements (SOURCE=INPUT) the $ADDMODES keyword needs to be created here. 
$CONLOAD  Force  Definition of concentrated loads at nodal point degrees of freedom. 
$CONLOAD  Moment  Definition of concentrated loads at nodal point degrees of freedom. 
$DISLOAD PRESS  Pressure  Definition of pressure loads for elements, where loads are given for elements
or element sets. Applicable to shells and solids, but also axisymmetric solid elements. Therefore apply a pressure on an HM shell element. Face identifiers are written in this case. On import IDS ELNODES or NODES will be resolved into ELGEO (face identifiers). 
$DISLOAD TEMP  Pressure  Nodal temperatures defined on elements or element sets. 
$DISLOAD TEMPFILM  Pressure  Surrounding temperatures for convective heat transfer applied on elements or element sets. 
$DISLOADN TEMP  Temperature  Nodal temperatures definition applied on nodes or node sets 
$DISLOADN TEMPFILM  Temperature  Surrounding temperatures for convective heat transfer applied on nodes or node sets. 
$INIVAL  Constraints  Definition of initial values for nodal point degrees of freedom. For $INIVAL source parameter INPUT is currently supported to specify the initial values based on nodal points. 
$INERTIA  Pressure  Definition of inertia forces acting on entire component or element sets.
Available are force distributions due to linear acceleration, constant or
accelerated rotation and coriolis acceleration. Only ACCELERATION and GRAVITY are supported. This card is created in the Pressure panel. Assign to a set of elements, and the set statement displays in the card image. To create the card without a set, create a pressure on a 'dummy' element; the card will be created without a set and can be applied to the whole model. 
$INERTIAX  Pressure  Definition of inertia forces acting on entire axisymmetric component or
element sets. Available are force distributions due to linear acceleration and
constant rotation. Only ACCELERATION and GRAVITY are supported. This card is created in the Pressure panel. Assign to a set of elements, and the set statement displays in the card image. To create the card without a set, create a pressure on a 'dummy' element; the card will be created without a set and can be applied to the whole model. 
$MPC GENERAL  Equation  Multipoint constraint definition. The equation needs to be placed into a load collector with card image SUPRESS. By attaching the load collector to a load step with ‘CONSTRAINTS’ attribute set, the $MPCVAL card gets written in the desired $CONSTRAINTS variant. 
$PRESCRIBE/ PREVAL  Constraints  Prescribed degrees of freedom/Nodal point values (implemented as HyperMesh constraints) 
$SUPPRESS  Constraints  Suppressed degrees of freedom 
Radioss Cards
Card  Supported Load Types  Description 

/ALE/BCS  Constraint  Describes the ALE boundary conditions. 
/BCS  Constraint  Defines boundary conditions on node groups for translational and rotational motion. 
/BCS/LAGMUL  Constraint  Defines boundary conditions on node groups using Lagrange multipliers. This keyword is not available for SPMD computation. 
/CLOAD  Force  Defines a concentrated force applied to each node of a prescribed nodal group. 
/CLOAD  Moment  Defines a concentrated moment applied to each node of a prescribed nodal group. 
/CONVEC  Thermal  Describes the free or forced convective flux. 
/DFS/DETCORD  Pressure  Set burning times of explosive material elements along a neutral fiber of detonating cord. Neutral fiber is provided with an ordered group of nodes and numerically built by spline interpolation. 
/DFS/DETLINE  Pressure  Enable explosive material ignition from a detonation line [A,B]. Point A & B  XYZ coordinate. 
/DFS/DETLINE/NODE  Pressure  Enable explosive material ignition from a detonation line [A,B]. Node ID defining Point A & B Coordinates. 
/DFS/DETPLAN  Pressure 
Describes a planar detonation wave. Node identifier for base point P. 
/DFS/DETPLAN/NODE  Pressure 
Describes a planar detonation wave. XYZ coordinate for basis point P. 
/DFS/DETPOINT  Pressure  Locates the detonation point and set lighting time for an explosive material law, XYZ coordinates. 
/DFS/DETPOINT/NODE  Pressure  Locates the detonation point and set lighting time for an explosive material law, node identifier defining ignition coordinates. 
/DFS/LASER  Pressure  Enable to model laser impact taking into account lasermatter interaction. 
/DFS/WAV_SHA  Pressure  Enables you to shape detonation wave to take into account obstacles. 
/EBCS/GRADP0  Pressure  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Zero pressure gradient. 
/EBCS/INIP  Pressure  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Initial pressure. 
/EBCS/INIV  Velocity  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Initial velocity. 
/EBCS/NORMV  Velocity  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Imposed normal velocity. 
/EBCS/PRES  Pressure  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Imposed density and pressure. 
/EBCS/VALVIN  Pressure  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Inlet valve (Imposed density and pressure). 
/EBCS/VALVOUT  Pressure  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Outlet valve (Imposed density and pressure). 
/EBCS/VEL  Velocity  Describes the elementary boundary condition sets. Keyword: Imposed velocity. 
/GRAV  Acceleration  Defines gravity load on node group. 
/IMPACC  Acceleration  Defines imposed accelerations on a group of nodes. 
/IMPDISP  Constraint  Defines imposed displacements on a group of nodes. 
/IMPDISP/FGEO  Constraint  Describes the final position of a set of N nodes, input by coordinates. 
/IMPFLUX  Thermal  Defines an imposed thermal surface flux on the specified surfaces or a thermal volumetric flux on the specified bricks. 
/IMPTEMP  Thermal  Defines imposed temperatures on a group of nodes. 
/IMPVEL  Velocity  Defines imposed velocities on a group of nodes. 
/IMPVEL/FGEO  Velocity  Describes the final position of a set of N nodes. The final position is provided by a node number. The node may eventually move. 
/INITEMP  Thermal  Describes the initial nodal temperature. 
/INIVEL/AXIS  Velocity  Initialize both translational and rotational velocities on a group of nodes in a given coordinate system. 
/INIVEL/TRA  Velocity  Defines initial velocity on a group of nodes. Initial velocity type: TRA  Translational material velocity. 
/INIVEL/ROT  Velocity  Defines initial velocity on a group of nodes. Initial velocity type: ROT  Rotational material velocity. 
/INIVEL/T+G  Velocity  Defines initial velocity on a group of nodes. Initial velocity type: T+G  Translational and grid material velocity (only used for ALE material). 
/INIVEL/GRID  Velocity  Defines initial velocity on a group of nodes. Initial velocity type: GRID  Grid material velocity (only used for ALE material). 
/LOAD/CENTRI  Moment  Apply a centrifugal force on a set of nodes according a body rotational velocity around the defined direction. 
/LOAD/PFLUID  Pressure  Simulates hydrodynamic fluid pressure on a structure. The fluid pressure is calculated according to the specified fluid velocity, orientation of the structural surface against the fluid vector and the height of the fluid column above the surface of the structure. 
/PLOAD  Pressure  Defines pressure load on a surface. 
/RADIATION  Thermal  Describes the imposed radiation flux to environment. 
/SPHBCS/SLIDE  Constraint  Describes the SPH symmetry conditions. Type: Material is perfectly sliding along the plane. 
/SPHBCS/TIED  Constraint  Describes the SPH symmetry conditions. Type: Material cannot slide along the symmetry plane. 