# RD-HM-T: 1020 Front Impact Bumper Model

This tutorial demonstrates how to find deformation, stress, and energy absorbing capacity of various structural components of a vehicle hitting a stationary or moving object.

The component is crashworthy (safe), if it meets the plastic strain and energy targets.

A bumper beam is one of the components that is used to protect passengers from front and rear collision.

Bumper beam crash tests are necessary, for instance to calculate the energy absorption of this component during a crash.
In this lesson you will learn to:
• Step 1: Load the initial model
• Step 2: Global de-penetration
• Step 3: Define material and failure
• Step 4: Define property
• Step 5: Create spotwelds
• Step 6: Mirroring model
• Step 7: Set contact
• Step 8: Create rigid body
• Step 9: Create boundary condition
• Step 11: Create rigid wall
• Step 12: Create accelerometer
• Step 13: Define section
• Step 14: 2nd de-penetration
• Step 15: Define time history output
• Step 16: Create engine setup
• Step 17: Export solver deck and run the model
• Step 18: Check results

## Model Description

• UNITS: Length (mm), Time (ms), Mass (kg), Force (kN) and Stress (GPa)
• Simulation time: [0 – 100.0]
• Boundary Conditions: Gravity load, initial velocity of -5.0 m/s of the bumper beam on the rigid wall
• /MAT/LAW2 (PLAS_JOHNS): for bumper parts and crash box parts
• /PROP/TYPE1 (SHELL): for bumper beam parts and crash box parts
• /INTER/TYPE2: for tied interface that connects a set of secondary nodes to a main surface (connect coarse and fine meshes, model spotwelds, rivets, and so on)
• /INTER/TYPE7: Penalty contact between all versus all