# CPYRA Element Checks and Default Bound Values

## CPYRA 1st-order (5-noded) Element Checks

The following qualities of the CPYRA 1st-order element are checked:
Aspect Ratio
The aspect ratio of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the maximum of the aspect ratios of its four triangular faces and the quadrilateral base face. Each triangular face is treated as a CTRIA3 element and the quadrilateral face as a CQUAD4 element.
Face Skew Angle
The face skew angle of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the maximum of the skew angles of its four triangular faces and the quadrilateral base face. Each triangular face is treated as a CTRIA3 element and the quadrilateral face as a CQUAD4 element.
Vertex Angle
The same vertex angle check is performed for all of the faces, and each is treated as a triangular (CTRIA3) or quadrilateral (CQUAD4) element. The minimum and maximum values reported for the element.
Face Warpage
The face skew angle of a CPYRA 1st-order element is defined as the warpage of its quadrilateral base face, which is treated as a CQUAD4 element.

## CPYRA 2nd-order (13-noded) Element Checks

The following qualities of the CPYRA 2nd-order element are checked:
Aspect Ratio
This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
Face Skew Angle
This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
Vertex Angle
This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
Face Warpage
This quality is calculated using only the corner nodes. Its definition is the same as that used for the CPYRA 1st-order element.
Hoe Normal Offset
The hoe normal offset is the maximum of its edges normal offset values. See Hoe Normal Offset of 3-Node Edge
Hoe Tangent Offset
The hoe tangent offset is the maximum of its edges tangent offset values. See Hoe Tangent Offset of 3-Node Edge

## CPYRA Default Bounds

Information Default values for warning message Default values for error message Default values for validity check
Lower Limit Upper Limit Lower Limit Upper Limit Lower Limit Upper Limit
Aspect Ratio - 100.0 - 1000.0 - 1.0E5
Skew Angle - 60.0 - 75.0 - 90.0
Face Warp Angle - 30.0 - 60.0 - 180.0
Hoe Normal Offset - 0.30 - 0.60 - 1.0E5
Hoe Tangent Offset - 0.20 - 0.25 - 0.5

The values used for warning and error checks may be adjusted by the ELEMQUAL Bulk Data Entry, but validity checks are hard-coded.