# Norton-Hoff Model

Temperature, strain, and strain rate dependent Norton-Hoff model used in HyperXtrude is given by the following expression.

Workpiece | Aluminum | { |

ConstitutiveModel = | "PowerLaw" | |

Density = | ρ | |

SpecificHeat = | Cp (T) | |

Conductivity = | K (T) | |

CoeffOfThermalExpansion = | βT | |

VolumetricHeatSource = | Qvol | |

Amplitude = | μ0 | |

ConstantY = | Y | |

StressRateHardeningExponent = | m | |

ReferenceTemperature = | T0 | |

SolidusTemeprature = | Ts | |

LiquidusTemeprature = | T1 | |

TemperatureDependence = | "Exp (A1T+A2T^2)" | |

StrainOffset = | ε | |

TemperatureConstantA1 = | A1 | |

TemperatureConstantA2 = | A2 | |

TemepratureConstantA3 = | A3 | |

TemperatureConstnatA4 = | A4 | |

YoungModulus = | E | |

PoissonRatio = | ν } |