Physics reminder: overview


This paragraph provides general information about electrical phenomena (a reminder of physical principles) and some useful definitions.

Study of electric charge systems

The ordinary matter consists of atoms that contain the same number of electrons (carrying an elementary negative electric charge) and of protons (carrying a positive electric charge). The atoms are electrically neutral. A deficit of electrons within an atom means a positive electric charge and an excess of electrons means a negative electric charge.

Generally speaking, we can say:

  • electrostatics is the study of static electric charges, and
  • electric conduction is the study of oriented motion of electric charges.


Electrostatics studies the systems of electric charges in static equilibrium.

Electric conduction

Electric conduction studies electric currents, i.e. the phenomena associated with the oriented displacement of electric charges, without taking into account the magnetic field generated by electric currents.

The study of interactions between magnetic fields and electric currents characterizes electromagnetism; it is not the object of electric conduction studies.

Steady state AC Electric

Steady State AC Electric is a term used in Flux for the application that studies the systems of electric charges in sinusoidal mode with taking into account the losses in materials.