If your Function is Running, it's ready to be invoked. Invoking a Function consists in making a request to one of the two invocation endpoints:
  • /spaces/<space>/functions/<function_name>/invoke will invoke your Function synchronously, so the response to that request will be the output of the Function.
  • /spaces/<space>/functions/<function_name>/async-invoke will invoke your Function asynchronously, which is best suited for long-running tasks. That means your Function will run and send the response as a request to the URL you choose.

Synchronous Invocation

This is the most straightforward way to invoke a Function and is probably enough for most cases where the tasks performed are short.

When a synchronous invocation is made, a connection will be established from the moment the request is sent until the Function execution finishes its execution and returns its response. This is great if the process takes just a few seconds (no more than 5-10 seconds). For longer processes, the connection will probably time out, and you won't receive any response. For these cases, you should consider switching to asynchronous invocation.

To invoke a Function synchronously, make a request to this endpoint with all the data you want to pass to the Function: /spaces/<space>/functions/<function_name>/invoke

Methods allowed are POST, GET, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE

You can add any query parameters your Function may need to work with to this URL.

You can also append to the URL a custom path (up to three levels). For example, you could make the next request

GET /spaces/<space>/functions/<function_name>/invoke/stock/market/today?company=Google 

to tell your Function to return today's Google stock prices. In this example, your Function will receive /stock/market/today as the request's path. It's up to you how to handle this information.

Asynchronous Invocation

For long-running tasks, or just if you want all your Function results being sent to the one place (for example, to keep a history), asynchronous invocation is the way to go.

To make an asynchronous invocation, you need to tell the Function where you want to receive the response adding a callback URL to your request. This callback URL will be added in a header called X-Callback-Url.

After sending the request to the asynchronous invocation endpoint, you'll get a 202 response immediately meaning that the request was accepted. Your Function will perform its task and, when finished, it will send the response as a request to the URL you specified in the X-Callback-Url header. This request will contain the Function output in the body, all the headers you've set inside your function and an additional X-Function-Status header with the response status code.

The endpoint to asynchronously invoke a Function is /spaces/<space>/functions/<function_name>/async-invoke
Note: The only method allowed in this case is POST.

As with synchronous invocation, you can use query parameters and custom extended paths in your requests when asynchronously invoking your Functions.

MQTT Trigger

An MQTT Trigger connects to an MQTT broker and creates a subscription to one or more topics. When a message is received, the Trigger will compare the topic of that message with the topics configured in the Functions. All the matching Functions will be invoked.

When a MQTT Trigger invokes a Function, the payload of the MQTT message is sent in the body of the HTTP invocation request. The topic of the message is sent in the X-Topic header of the request.

You can create multiple MQTT Triggers to connect to different brokers or subscribe to different topics, but you should try to keep the number of Triggers as low as possible to prevent duplicated invocations and make your setup clearer. You can use multiple topics per Trigger and use wildcards to keep things simple.

Note that when you create an MQTT subscription with credentials that don't have read privileges to the subscribed topics, the subscription will silently ignore the messages sent to these topics, so make sure you use the right credentials when configuring a Trigger.

Figure 1.

The Event Trigger must be defined in the Triggers tab. It works as a listener to a particular endpoint. In the previous example, the Trigger points to the property memory, of the thing “01F0DWNEYK5ART2RSWP5AZCK00” that is in the collection “computers” inside the space “computer”.

Callback URL

Triggers invoke Functions asynchronously, so to get the response of these Functions after its execution you can configure a Callback URL in the Trigger. This way, the response of every Function invoked by that Trigger will be sent to the Callback URL using a `POST` HTTP request.

You can use the webhook website to generate your unique url for easily inspect and test the incoming requests.

Create an MQTT Trigger

Complete the steps below to create a trigger.

  1. Click Functions > Triggers.
  2. Click New Trigger.

  3. In the New Event Trigger panel, enter the Trigger description and type.

    Figure 2.
  4. Under Config, enter the host as
  5. Enter your MQTT username and password as it is in the Thing Interfaces tab, or autogenerate it.
  6. Under Add Topic, enter the topic endpoint.

    Figure 3.

    This endpoint must be the same as the Event Trigger in Workers.

  7. In the Callback URL field, enter the callback URL to receive the trigger's information.
  8. Click Save.
    The Trigger status will change to Running.
    Note: If a User changes the credentials, the Trigger's status can change to Failed.

Cron Trigger

A Cron Trigger allows you to schedule when to invoke a function, using the following Cron expressions.
Note: A Cron Trigger must be created to enable to edit the Cron expression. More information about this can be found clicking the help button . Below some examples are shown:
Schedule minute, hour, day of moth, month, day of week.
  • */10 * * * * to fire the Function every 10 minutes.
  • 0 0 1 * * to fire the Function once at 00:00 on the first of each month.
  • 0 0 * * 3 to fire the Function at 00:00 every Wednesday.
Use one of the following descriptors:
  • @yearly or @annually
  • @monthly
  • @weekly
  • @daily or @midnight
  • @hourly

Create a Cron Trigger

Cron Triggers require no configuration, so just one Cron Trigger can be created for space. Once you have created a Cron Trigger, the option to add a new Cron Trigger will disappear from the type drop-down menu.

  1. Click Functions > Triggers.
  2. Click Add.

    Figure 4.
  3. In the New Event Trigger panel, enter the Trigger description.
  4. From the Type drop down menu, select Cron.

    Figure 5.
  5. Click Save.