# Laplace Law for Surface Tension

## Problem Description

Laplace’s law dictates the pressure difference between inside and the outside of a
bubble due to surface tension forces. The expression for a 2D problem
is:

$$\text{\Delta}p=\alpha /r$$

Where,- $\alpha $
- Surface tension coefficient
- $r$
- Final radius of the bubble

The expression for a 3D problem is:

$$\text{\Delta}p=2\alpha /r$$

The initial particle arrangement for the 2D simulation as well as the problem
geometry are shown in Figure 1, where the bubble and bulk fluid are shown in blue and red,
respectively. For 3D simulation, the side lengths of the bubble fluid and bulk fluid
regions are the same as the 2D case.

## Numerical Setup

Here, a particle spacing of dx = 2*10^{-3} m is used for both 2D and 3D
cases. Both simulations run for five physical seconds. All boundaries are
periodic.

## Results

The pressure inside the droplet is estimated by averaging values of all the particles
belonging to the droplet and comparing them to the average pressure outside of the
droplet. The estimated pressure difference
$\text{\Delta}p$
for 2D and 3D cases and their comparison with the
analytic predictions are given in Table 1.

$\text{\Delta}{p}_{NFX}$ | $\text{\Delta}{p}_{theory}$ | Relative error | |
---|---|---|---|

2-Dimensional | 0.452 | 0.443 | 2% |

3-Dimensional | 0.774 | 0.806 | 4% |

Figure 2 shows the final
particle arrangement at t = 5 s for both cases. As expected, the bubble has reached
a circular shape in 2D and a spherical shape in 3D.