# Package Modelica.​Fluid.​Dissipation.​Utilities.​SharedDocumentation.​PressureLoss.​StraightPipeIcon for general information packages

### Information

This icon indicates classes containing only documentation, intended for general description of, e.g., concepts and features of a package.

Extends from `Modelica.​Icons.​Information` (Icon for general information packages).

## Class Modelica.​Fluid.​Dissipation.​Utilities.​SharedDocumentation.​PressureLoss.​StraightPipe.​dp_laminarIcon for general information packages

### Information

Calculation of pressure loss in a straight pipe for laminar flow regime of single-phase fluid flow only.

#### Restriction

This function shall be used inside of the restricted limits according to the referenced literature.

• circular cross sectional area
• laminar flow regime (Reynolds number Re ≤ 2000) [VDI-Wärmeatlas 2002, p. Lab, eq. 3]

#### Calculation

The pressure loss dp for straight pipes is determined by:

```    dp = lambda_FRI * (L/d_hyd) * (rho/2) * velocity^2
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-]. L as length of straight pipe [m], d_hyd as hydraulic diameter of straight pipe [m], rho as density of fluid [kg/m3], velocity as mean velocity [m/s].

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI of straight pipes for the laminar flow regime is calculated by Hagen-Poiseuilles law according to [Idelchik 2006, p. 77, eq. 2-3] as follows:

• Laminar flow regime is restricted to a Reynolds number Re ≤ 2000
• and calculated through:
```     lambda_FRI = 64/Re
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-], Re as Reynolds number [-].

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI in the laminar regime is independent of the surface roughness K as long as the relative roughness k = surface roughness/hydraulic diameter is smaller than 0.007. A higher relative roughness k than 0.007 leads to an earlier leaving of the laminar regime to the transition regime at some value of Reynolds number Re_lam_leave . This earlier leaving is not modelled here because only laminar fluid flow is considered.

#### Verification

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI in dependence of Reynolds number is shown in the figure below.

The pressure loss dp for the laminar regime in dependence of the mass flow rate of water is shown in the figure below.

Note that this pressure loss function shall not be used for the modelling outside of the laminar flow regime at Re > 2000 even though it could be used for that.

If the whole flow regime shall be modelled, the pressure loss function dp_overall can be used.

#### References

Elmqvist,H., M.Otter and S.E. Cellier:
Inline integration: A new mixed symbolic / numeric approach for solving differential-algebraic equation systems.. In Proceedings of European Simulation MultiConference, Praque, 1995.
Idelchik,I.E.:
Handbook of hydraulic resistance. Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, 3rd edition, 2006.
VDI:
VDI - Wärmeatlas: Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. Springer Verlag, 9th edition, 2002.

Extends from `Modelica.​Icons.​Information` (Icon for general information packages).

## Class Modelica.​Fluid.​Dissipation.​Utilities.​SharedDocumentation.​PressureLoss.​StraightPipe.​dp_overallIcon for general information packages

### Information

Calculation of pressure loss in a straight pipe for laminar or turbulent flow regime of single-phase fluid flow only considering surface roughness.

#### Restriction

This function shall be used within the restricted limits according to the referenced literature.

• circular cross sectional area

#### Calculation

The pressure loss dp for straight pipes is determined by:
```    dp = lambda_FRI * (L/d_hyd) * (rho/2) * velocity^2
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-], L as length of straight pipe [m], d_hyd as hydraulic diameter of straight pipe [m], rho as density of fluid [kg/m3], velocity as mean velocity [m/s].

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI for straight pipes is calculated depending on the fluid flow regime (with corresponding Reynolds number Re) and the absolute surface roughness K .

The Laminar regime is calculated for Re ≤ 2000 by the Hagen-Poiseuille law according to [Idelchik 2006, p. 77, eq. 2-3]

```    lambda_FRI = 64/Re
```

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI in the laminar regime is independent of the surface roughness k as long as the relative roughness k is smaller than 0.007. A greater relative roughness k than 0.007 is leading to an earlier leaving of the Hagen-Poiseuille law at some value of Reynolds number Re_lam_leave . The leaving of the laminar regime in dependence of the relative roughness k is calculated according to [Samoilenko in Idelchik 2006, p. 81, sect. 2-1-21] as:

```    Re_lam_leave = 754*exp(if k ≤ 0.007 then 0.93 else 0.0065/k)
```

The Transition regime is calculated for 2000 < Re ≤ 4000 by a cubic interpolation between the equations of the laminar and turbulent flow regime. Different cubic interpolation equations for the calculation of either pressure loss dp or mass flow rate m_flow results in a deviation of the Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI through the transition regime. This deviation can be neglected due to the uncertainty in determination of the fluid flow in the transition regime.

Turbulent regime can be calculated for a smooth surface (Blasius law) or a rough surface (Colebrook-White law):

Smooth surface (roughness = Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation.Utilities.Types.Roughness.Neglected) w.r.t. Blasius law in the turbulent regime according to [Idelchik 2006, p. 77, sec. 15]:

```    lambda_FRI = 0.3164*Re^(-0.25)
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-]. Re as Reynolds number [-].

Note that the Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI for smooth straight pipes in the turbulent regime is independent of the surface roughness K .

Rough surface (roughness = Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation.Utilities.Types.Roughness.Considered) w.r.t. Colebrook-White law in the turbulent regime according to [Miller 1984, p. 191, eq. 8.4]:

```    lambda_FRI = 0.25/{lg[k/(3.7*d_hyd) + 5.74/(Re)^0.9]}^2
```

with

 d_hyd as hydraulic diameter [-], k= K/d_hyd as relative roughness [-], K as roughness (average height of surface asperities [m], lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-], Re as Reynolds number [-].

#### Verification

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI in dependence of Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness k is shown in the figure below.

The pressure loss dp for the turbulent regime in dependence of the mass flow rate of water is shown in the figure below.

And the mass flow rate m_flow for the turbulent regime in dependence of the pressure loss of water is shown in the figure below.

#### References

Idelchik,I.E.:
Handbook of hydraulic resistance. Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, 3rd edition, 2006.
Miller,D.S.:
Internal flow systems. volume 5th of BHRA Fluid Engineering Series.BHRA Fluid Engineering, 1984.
Samoilenko,L.A.:
Investigation of the hydraulic resistance of pipelines in the zone of transition from laminar into turbulent motion. PhD thesis, Leningrad State University, 1968.
VDI:
VDI - Wärmeatlas: Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. Springer Verlag, 9th edition, 2002.

Extends from `Modelica.​Icons.​Information` (Icon for general information packages).

## Class Modelica.​Fluid.​Dissipation.​Utilities.​SharedDocumentation.​PressureLoss.​StraightPipe.​dp_turbulentIcon for general information packages

### Information

Calculation of pressure loss in a straight pipe for turbulent flow regime of single-phase fluid flow only considering surface roughness.

#### Restriction

This function shall be used within the restricted limits according to the referenced literature.

• circular cross sectional area
• turbulent flow regime (Reynolds number Re ≥ 4e3) [VDI-Wärmeatlas 2002, p. Lab 3, fig. 1]

#### Calculation

The pressure loss dp for straight pipes is determined by:

```    dp = lambda_FRI * (L/d_hyd) * (rho/2) * velocity^2
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-]. L as length of straight pipe [m], d_hyd as hydraulic diameter of straight pipe [m], rho as density of fluid [kg/m3], velocity as mean velocity [m/s].

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI for a straight pipe in the turbulent regime can be calculated for a smooth surface (Blasius law) or a rough surface (Colebrook-White law).

Smooth surface (roughness = Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation.Utilities.Types.Roughness.Neglected) w.r.t. Blasius law in the turbulent regime according to [Idelchik 2006, p. 77, sec. 15]:

```    lambda_FRI = 0.3164*Re^(-0.25)
```

with

 lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-]. Re as Reynolds number [-].

Note that the Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI for smooth straight pipes in the turbulent regime is independent of the surface roughness K .

Rough surface (roughness = Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation.Utilities.Types.Roughness.Considered) w.r.t. Colebrook-White law in the turbulent regime according to [Miller 1984, p. 191, eq. 8.4]:

```    lambda_FRI = 0.25/{lg[k/(3.7*d_hyd) + 5.74/(Re)^0.9]}^2
```

with

 d_hyd as hydraulic diameter [-], k= K/d_hyd as relative roughness [-], K as roughness (average height of surface asperities [m]. lambda_FRI as Darcy friction factor [-], Re as Reynolds number [-].

#### Verification

The Darcy friction factor lambda_FRI in dependence of Reynolds number for different values of relative roughness k is shown in the figure below.

Note that this pressure loss function shall not be used for the modelling outside of the turbulent flow regime at Re < 4e3 even though it could be used for that.

If the overall flow regime shall be modelled, the pressure loss function dp_overall can be used.

#### References

Idelchik,I.E.:
Handbook of hydraulic resistance. Jaico Publishing House, Mumbai, 3rd edition, 2006.
VDI:
VDI - Wärmeatlas: Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. Springer Verlag, 9th edition, 2002.

Extends from `Modelica.​Icons.​Information` (Icon for general information packages).

## Class Modelica.​Fluid.​Dissipation.​Utilities.​SharedDocumentation.​PressureLoss.​StraightPipe.​dp_twoPhaseOverallIcon for general information packages

### Information

Calculation of pressure loss for two phase flow in a horizontal or vertical straight pipe for an overall flow regime considering frictional, momentum and geodetic pressure loss.

#### Restriction

This function shall be used within the restricted limits according to the referenced literature.

• circular cross sectional area
• neglecting of surface roughness
• horizontal flow or vertical upflow
• usage of mass flow rate quality (see Calculation)
• two phase pressure loss for mean constant mass flow rate quality (x_flow) over (increment) length
• usage of two phase pressure loss function for discretization at boiling or condensation considering variable mass flow rate quality

#### Calculation

The two phase pressure loss dp_2ph of straight pipes is determined by:

```    dp_2ph = dp_fri + dp_mom + dp_geo
```

with

 dp_fri as frictional pressure loss [Pa], dp_mom as momentum pressure loss [Pa], dp_geo as geodetic pressure loss [Pa].

Definition of quality for two phase flow:

Different definitions of the quality exist for two phase flow. Static quality, mass flow rate quality and thermodynamic quality can be used to describe the fraction of gas and liquid in two phase flow. Here the mass flow rate quality (x_flow) is used to describe two phase flow as follows:

```    x_flow = mdot_g/(mdot_g+mdot_l)
```

with

 x_flow as mass flow rate quality [-], mdot_g as gaseous mass flow rate [kg/s], mdot_l as liquid mass flow rate [kg/s].

Note that mass flow rate quality (x_flow) is only equal to the static quality, if a difference between the velocity of gas and liquid phase is neglected (homogeneous approach). Additionally the thermodynamic quality is only equal to the mass flow rate quality (x_flow) in the two phase regime for thermodynamic equilibrium of the phases.

Frictional pressure loss:

The frictional pressure loss dp_fri of a straight pipe is calculated either by the correlation of Friedel (frictionalPressureLoss==Friedel) or by the correlation of Chisholm (frictionalPressureLoss==Chisholm). Both correlations can be used for the above named two phase flow regimes. The two phase frictional pressure loss results from a frictional pressure loss assuming one phase liquid fluid flow and a two phase multiplier taking into account the effects of two phase flow:

```    dp_fri = dp_1ph*phi_i
```

with

 dp_1ph as frictional pressure loss assuming one phase liquid fluid flow [Pa], phi_i as two phase multiplier [-].

The liquid frictional pressure loss is calculated with the total mass flow rate assumed to flow as liquid.

The correlations of Friedel and Chisholm differ in their calculation of the two phase multiplier:

```    phi_friedel = (1 - x_flow)^2 + x_flow^2*(rho_l/rho_g)*(lambda_g/lambda_l)
+ 3.43*x_flow^0.685*(1 - x_flow)^0.24*(rho_l/rho_g)^0.8*(eta_g/eta_l)^0.22*(1 - eta_g/eta_l)^0.89*(1/Fr_l^(0.048))*(1/We_l^(0.0334))
```
```    phi_chisholm = 1 + (gamma^2 - 1)*(B*x_flow^((2 - n_exp)/2)*(1 - x_flow)^((2 -n_exp)/2) + x_flow^(2 - n_exp))
```

with

 B as Lockhart-Martinelli coefficient [-], eta_l as dynamic viscosity of the liquid phase [Pas], eta_g as dynamic viscosity of the gaseous phase [Pas], gamma as physical property coefficient [-], n_exp =0.2 as exponent in Chisholm correlation [-], phi_i as two phase multiplier [-], rho_l as density of the liquid phase [kg/m3], rho_g as density of the gaseous phase [kg/m3], Re_l as Reynolds number of the liquid phase [-], Re_g as Reynolds number of the gaseous phase [-], Fr_l as Froude number of the liquid phase [-], We_l as Weber number of the liquid phase [-], x_flow as mass flow rate quality [-].

Note that the (mean constant) mass flow rate quality (x_flow) used for frictional pressure loss is calculated as arithmetic mean value out of the mass flow rate quality at the end and at the start of the straight pipe length.

Momentum pressure loss:

The momentum pressure loss dp_mom can be considered (momentumPressureLoss = true) for a homogeneous or heterogeneous two phase flow depending on the approach used for the void fraction (epsilon). At evaporation the liquid phase having a slow velocity has to be accelerated to the higher velocity of the gas. The difference in static pressure at the outlet and the inlet causes a positive momentum pressure loss at evaporation (assumed vice versa for condensation). The momentum pressure loss occurs for a changing mass flow rate quality due to condensation or evaporation according to [VDI 2006, p.Lba 4, eq. 22] :

```    dp_mom = mdot_A^2*[[((1-x_flow)^2/(rho_l*(1-epsilon)) + x_flow^2/(rho_g*epsilon))]_out - [((1-x_flow)^2/(rho_l*(1-epsilon)) + x_flow^2/(rho_g*epsilon))]_in]
```

with

 mdot_A as total mass flow rate density [kg/(m2s)], epsilon as void fraction [-], rho_l as density of the liquid phase [kg/m3], rho_g as density of the gaseous phase [kg/m3], x_flow as mass flow rate quality [-].

Note that a momentum pressure loss is only considered for a variable mass flow rate quality (x_flow) during evaporation or condensation. Momentum pressure loss does not occur under adiabatic conditions for a corresponding constant mass flow rate quality (evaporation due to pressure loss is not considered).

Void fraction approach:

The void fraction is one of the most important parameter used to characterize two phase flow. There are several analytical and empirical approaches according to [Thome, J.R] :

• homogeneous approach
• momentum flux approach (heterogeneous model)
• Kinetic energy flow approach by Zivi (heterogeneous model)
• Empirical momentum flux approach by Chisholm (heterogeneous model)

These approaches for the void fraction epsilon imply a correlation for the slip ratio. The slip ratio is defined as ratio of the velocity from the gaseous phase to the liquid phase at two phase flow. The effects of different fluid flow velocities of the phases on two phase pressure loss can be considered with the slip ratio in the heterogeneous approaches. The slip ratio for the homogeneous approach is unity, so that there is no difference in the velocities of the two phases (e.g., usable for bubble flow).

Geodetic pressure loss:

The geodetic pressure loss dp_geo can be considered (geodeticPressureLoss=true) for two phase flow according to [VDI 2006, p.Lbb 1, eq. 4] :

```    dp_geo = (epsilon*rho_g +(1-epsilon)*rho_l)*g*L*sin(phi)
```

with

 epsilon as void fraction [-], rho_l as density of the liquid phase [kg/m3], rho_g as density of the gaseous phase [kg/m3], g as acceleration of gravity [m/s2], L as length of straight pipe [m], phi as angle to horizontal [rad].

#### Verification

The two phase pressure loss for a horizontal pipe calculated by the correlation of Friedel neglecting momentum and geodetic pressure loss is shown in the figure below.

The two phase pressure loss for a horizontal pipe calculated by the correlation of Chisholm neglecting momentum and geodetic pressure loss is shown in the figure below.

#### References

Chisholm,D.:
Pressure gradients due to friction during the flow of evaporating two-phase mixtures in smooth tubes and channels. Volume 16th of International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 1973.
Friedel,L.:
IMPROVED FRICTION PRESSURE DROP CORRELATIONS FOR HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL TWO PHASE PIPE FLOW.3R International, Vol. 18, Issue 7, pp. 485-491, 1979.
VDI:
VDI - Wärmeatlas: Berechnungsblätter für den Wärmeübergang. Springer Verlag, 10th edition, 2006.
J.M. Jensen and H. Tummescheit:
Moving boundary models for dynamic simulations of two-phase flows. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Modelica Conference, pages 235-244, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, 2002. The Modelica Association.
Thome, J.R.:
Engineering Data Book 3.Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 2009.

Extends from `Modelica.​Icons.​Information` (Icon for general information packages).