User's guide

The User's Guide contains the following sub-sections:

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Name | Description |
---|---|

`Contact` | Contact |

`GettingStarted` | Getting Started |

`ReleaseNotes` | Release notes |

Getting Started

The ** Fluid.Dissipation ** library provides convective heat transfer and pressure loss
(HTPL) correlations for a broad range of energy devices to build up thermohydraulic
energy systems.

This section introduces an implementation method for the integration of the provided HTPL
functions by Fluid.Dissipation into own application models. Additionally you can find
ready-to-use application models integrated into Modelica.Fluid as thermohydraulic
framework (see
package Fittings).

In the following the implementation method is described in 5 steps for a straight pipe as
example. Generally the implementation method can be used for all HTPL correlations
throughout the library in the same manner.

All thermohydraulic systems using pressure loss calculations can be modelled for an **
incompressible case **, where the pressure loss (DP) is calculated in dependence of a
known mass flow rate (m_flow)

DP = f(m_flow,...)

or a ** compressible case ** , where the mass flow rate (M_FLOW) is calculated in
dependence of a known pressure loss (dp)

M_FLOW = f(dp,...).

In both cases one target variable (DP for the compressible or M_FLOW for the incompressible case) is calculated as a function of the corresponding input variable (m_flow or dp respectively). Both functions for these cases can be found in the library for the pressure loss device of interest enlarged with a corresponding underscore describing its intended use (functionname_MFLOW for compressible or functionname_DP for incompressible calculation).

To create a simplified thermohydraulic model, the pressure loss (dp) and the mass flow rate (M_FLOW) have to be defined as unknown variables and only a functional correlation between them is still missing. Here the implementation for the compressible case of a flow model will be explained as example.

model straightPipe //compressible case M_FLOW = f(dp) Modelica.SIunits.Pressure dp "Input pressure loss"; Modelica.SIunits.MassFlowRate M_FLOW "Output mass flow rate"; end straightPipe equation end straightPipe

The HTPL correlations are modelled with functions for several devices. The pressure loss
of a straight pipe to be modelled can be found by browsing through the **
Fluid.Dissipation ** library and looking up the function of interest, here:

Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_MFLOW

This HTPL correlation for the compressible case of a straight pipe have to be dragged and
dropped in the equation section of the ** equation layer ** of the model in Step 1.

model straightPipe //compressible case M_FLOW = f(dp) Modelica.SIunits.Pressure dp "Input pressure loss"; Modelica.SIunits.MassFlowRate M_FLOW "Output mass flow rate"; equation Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_MFLOWend straightPipe

The chosen function in Step 2 still needs its corresponding input values provided by
records. These input records are split into one for input parameters (e.g., for
geometry) and one for input variables (e.g., for fluid properties). The name of these
input records are identical with the corresponding function but with the extension **
_IN_con ** for parameters and ** _IN_var ** for variables as input. These
corresponding input record for the chosen function have to be dragged and dropped on the
** diagram layer ** of the model in Step 1.

Input parameter record: Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_IN_conIN_con Input variable record: Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_IN_varIN_var

Now the equation layer of the model in Step 1 should look similar to the following (without comments and annotation):

model straightPipe ... //records Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_IN_conIN_con; Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_IN_varIN_var; equation Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_MFLOW end straightPipe

Now the input record have to be assigned to the chosen function in the equation layer. The resulting function-record implementation for the compressible case looks like the following:

model straightPipe ... equation //compressible case M_FLOW = Fluid.Dissipation.PressureLoss.StraightPipe.dp_overall_MFLOW(IN_con,IN_var,dp); end straightPipe

Here the compressible case for the unknown mass flow rate (M_FLOW) is calculated by the known pressure difference (dp) out of the interfaces of the thermohydraulic framework and the input records (IN_con,IN_var) provide data like geometry and fluid properties for example.

In the last step the variables of the input records for the function have to be assigned. The assignment of the record variables can either be done directly in the record on the diagram layer or in the equation layer. The assignment of the input record in the equation layer results into the following model:

model straightPipe ... //compressible fluid flow //input record Fluid.Dissipation.Examples.Applications.PressureLoss.BaseClasses.StraightPipe.Overall.Pres sureLossInput_con IN_con( d_hyd=d_hyd, L=L, roughness=roughness, K=K); Fluid.Dissipation.Examples.Applications.PressureLoss.BaseClasses.StraightPipe.Overall.Pres sureLossInput_var IN_var( eta=eta, rho=rho); ... end straight Pipe;

If the implementation of a HTPL correlation is done in an existing application model, the
unknown variables out of Step 1 (M_FLOW and dp for compressible or DP and m_flow for
incompressible case) have to be adjusted to the model variables (typically the interface
variables). The implementation of HTPL correlation into ** Modelica.Fluid ** can be
found for flow
models of several devices.

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Release notes

Fluid.Dissipation was improved for the release as follows:

- Changed structure for input records of all heat transfer and pressure loss
functions:
- Reduced amount of input records for compressible and incompressible functions as well as for their combinational one to improve usability of library.
- Splitting input records of one function into one with parameters (e.g., for geometry) and one with variables (e.g., fluid properties) to ease work of IDE-solver.

- Improved Modelica.Fluid application models for available heat transfer and pressure
loss functions:
- Flattened inheritance with one base flow model for all energy devices.
- Implemented smooth state of fluid density and dynamic viscosity for reverse flow.

- Adaption of complete library due to structure change.

Fluid.Dissipation was improved for the release as follows:

- Changed flow models structure:

Now that a future feature for the automatic choice of using either a mass flow rate (compressible case) or a pressure loss (incompressible case) function for calculation is supported if implemented by IDE. Due to that no manual selection of a compressible or incompressible calculation in the Modelica.Fluid flow models is possible anymore. Therefore nonlinear equations will be created from the Modelica.Fluid flow models, if the future feature is not supported and the mass flow rate is known at a fluid port instead of the pressure loss. - Changed structure and amount of records used as input for function calls due to changed structure of flow model.
- Changed structure of function calls due to changed structure of flow model.
- Finished validation of all available heat transfer and pressure loss functions.
- Included scripts for verification of all available heat transfer and pressure loss functions.

Fluid.Dissipation was improved for the release as follows:

- Support of analytical Jacobians at inverse calculation of heat transfer and pressure loss functions.
- Included Modelica.Fluid application models for available heat transfer and pressure loss functions.
- Adaption of complete library to Modelica Standard nomenclature.

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Contact

**Stefan Wischhusen**

XRG Simulation GmbH

Hamburg, Germany

email: wischhusen@xrg-simulation.de

The following people contributed to the Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation library (alphabetical list): Jörg Eiden, Ole Engel, Nina Peci, Sven Rutkowski, Thorben Vahlenkamp, Stefan Wischhusen.

The development of the Modelica.Fluid.Dissipation library was founded within the ITEA research project EuroSysLib-D by German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (promotional reference 01IS07022B). The project was started in October 2007 and ended in June 2010.

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