# Package HydraulicsByFluidon.​Components.​CylindersIcon for standard packages

### Information

Standard package icon.

Extends from Modelica.​Icons.​Package (Icon for standard packages).

### Package Contents

NameDescription
Cylinder
DoubleRodCylinder
PlungerCylinder

## Model HydraulicsByFluidon.​Components.​Cylinders.​Cylinder

### Information

Model of a differential cylinder with Stribeck friction and volumetric losses.

The fundamental geometrical properties of the differential cylinder are the piston and rod diameters (Piston diameter and Rod diameter) as well as the lengths of the cylinder and the rod (Cylinder length and Rod length). By using the parameter Inclination angle, the inclination of the cylinder with respect to the horizon can be adjusted. The resulting forces due to gravity are taken into account automatically, however without inclusion of static fluid masses.

For dynamic calculations, the masses of the piston and the cylinder are required. These can be provided by specifying the parameters Piston mass and Cylinder mass. The dynamic mass of the fluid, which acts as an additional inertia, is automatically taken into account by the model.

The parameters Breakaway friction force, Constant friction/Coulomb force, Velocity dependent friction and Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction (velocity where the friction force begins to grow linearly) characterize the velocity dependence of the friction force between piston and cylinder. Instead of using the Stribeck friction model, a simplified friction calculation can be enabled by setting the check mark relFric. In this case, the friction force equals the net force acting on the interface between piston and cylinder multiplied by the parameter Relative friction factor. Regardless of which friction model is used, the friction force is not influenced by the inclination of the cylinder or the system pressure. The parameter Relative velocity near to zero is used by the internal state machine of the cylinder model and determines the velocity below which the piston is considered stuck.

The pressure in both cylinder chambers can be initialized by assigning start values to Pressure in chamber A (bore side) and Pressure in chamber B (rod side). The parameter Dead volume determines the size of the parasitic volume which remains even if the piston has reached the mechanical stops at the cylinder ends.

The volumetric losses due to internal and external leakage are parameterized by providing the respective flow rates (Internal leakage: volume flow and External leakage: volume flow), associated pressure drops (Internal leakage: pressure difference and External leakage: pressure difference) and the fluid density Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference for which these values were obtained.

The fluid properties can be propagated between the two hydraulic ports by setting the parameter Forward fluid properties to "true".

### Parameters

TypeNameDefaultDescription
LengthpistonDiameter0.1Piston diameter
LengthrodDiameter0.05Rod diameter
LengthcylinderLength0.4Cylinder length
LengthrodLength0.4Rod length
Angleangle0Inclination angle
MassmassPiston50Piston mass
MassmassCylinder40Cylinder mass
RealfProp10000Velocity dependent friction
ForcefCoulomb250Constant friction/Coulomb force
ForcefBreakaway500Breakaway friction force
VelocityvM0.005Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction
BooleanrelFricfalseUse "relative friction factor" to calculate friction
RealrelFricFactor0Relative friction factor
VelocityvSmall1e-4Relative velocity near to zero
VolumeFlowRateleakageFlowRateInternal1.67e-8Internal leakage: volume flow
PressureleakagePressureDiffInternal1e+7Internal leakage: pressure difference
VolumeFlowRateleakageFlowRateExternal0External leakage: volume flow
PressureleakagePressureDiffExternal1e+7External leakage: pressure difference
DensityleakageReferenceDensity860Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference
BooleanforwardFluidPropertiesfalseForward fluid properties between ports

### Connectors

TypeNameDescription
Flange_aflange_c
Flange_bflange_p
FluidPortfluidPortAHydraulic port A
FluidPortfluidPortBHydraulic port B
output RealOutputstrokeOutRelative position of piston

## Model HydraulicsByFluidon.​Components.​Cylinders.​DoubleRodCylinder

### Information

Model of a double rod cylinder with Stribeck friction and volumetric losses.

The fundamental geometrical properties of the double rod cylinder are the piston and rod diameters (pistonDiameter, rodDiameterA, rodDiameterB) as well as the lengths of the cylinder and the rod (cylinderLength and rodLength). By using the parameter angle, the inclination of the cylinder with respect to the horizon can be adjusted. The resulting forces due to gravity are taken into account automatically, however without inclusion of static fluid masses.

For dynamic calculations, the masses of the piston and the cylinder are required. These can be provided by specifying the parameters Piston mass and Cylinder mass. The dynamic mass of the fluid, which acts as an additional inertia, is automatically taken into account by the model.

The parameters Breakaway friction force, Constant friction/Coulomb force, Velocity dependent friction and Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction (velocity where the friction force begins to grow linearly) characterize the velocity dependence of the friction force between piston and cylinder. Instead of using the Stribeck friction model, a simplified friction calculation can be enabled by setting the check mark relFric. In this case, the friction force equals the net force acting on the interface between piston and cylinder multiplied by the parameter Relative friction factor. Regardless of which friction model is used, the friction force is not influenced by the inclination of the cylinder or the system pressure. The parameter Relative velocity near to zero is used by the internal state machine of the cylinder model and determines the velocity below which the piston is considered stuck.

The pressure in both cylinder chambers can be initialized by assigning start values to Pressure in chamber A (bore side) and Pressure in chamber B (rod side). The parameter Dead volume determines the size of the parasitic volume which remains even if the piston has reached the mechanical stops at the cylinder ends.

The volumetric losses due to internal and external leakage are parameterized by providing the respective flow rates (Internal leakage: volume flow and External leakage: volume flow), associated pressure drops (Internal leakage: pressure difference and External leakage: pressure difference) and the fluid density Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference for which these values were obtained.

The fluid properties can be propagated between the two hydraulic ports by setting the parameter Forward fluid properties to "true".

### Parameters

TypeNameDefaultDescription
LengthpistonDiameter0.1Piston diameter
LengthrodDiameterA0.05Rod diameter @ port A
LengthrodDiameterB0.05Rod diameter @ port B
LengthcylinderLength0.4Cylinder length
LengthrodLengthA0.4Rod length @ port A
LengthrodLengthB0.4Rod length @ port B
Angleangle0Inclination angle
MassmassPiston50Piston mass
MassmassCylinder40Cylinder mass
RealfProp10000Velocity dependent friction
ForcefCoulomb250Constant friction/Coulomb force
ForcefBreakaway500Breakaway friction force
VelocityvM0.005Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction
BooleanrelFricfalseUse "relative friction factor" to calculate friction
RealrelFricFactor0Relative friction factor
VelocityvSmall1e-4Relative velocity near to zero
VolumeFlowRateleakageFlowRateInternal1.67e-8Internal leakage: volume flow
PressureleakagePressureDiffInternal1e+7Internal leakage: pressure difference
VolumeFlowRateleakageFlowRateExternal0External leakage: volume flow
PressureleakagePressureDiffExternal1e+7External leakage: pressure difference
DensityleakageReferenceDensity860Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference
BooleanforwardFluidPropertiesfalseForward fluid properties between ports

### Connectors

TypeNameDescription
Flange_aflange_cCylinder flange
Flange_aflange_paPiston flange @ port A
Flange_bflange_pbPiston flange @ port B
FluidPortfluidPortAHydraulic port A
FluidPortfluidPortBHydraulic port B
output RealOutputstrokeOutRelative position of piston

## Model HydraulicsByFluidon.​Components.​Cylinders.​PlungerCylinder

### Information

Model of a plunger cylinder with Stribeck friction and volumetric losses.

The fundamental geometrical properties of the plunger cylinder are the cylinder and plunger diameters (Inner diameter of cylinder, Plunger diameter) as well as the lengths of the cylinder and the plunger (Cylinder length and Plunger length). By using the parameter Inclination angle, the inclination of the cylinder with respect to the horizon can be adjusted. The resulting forces due to gravity are taken into account automatically.

For dynamic calculations, the masses of the plunger and the cylinder are required. These can be provided by specifying the parameters Plunger mass and Cylinder mass. The dynamic mass of the fluid, which acts as an additional inertia, is automatically taken into account by the model.

The parameters Breakaway friction force, Constant friction/Coulomb force, Velocity dependent friction and Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction (velocity where the friction force begins to grow linearly) characterize the velocity dependence of the friction force between piston and cylinder. Instead of using the Stribeck friction model, a simplified friction calculation can be enabled by setting the check mark relFric. In this case, the friction force equals the net force acting on the interface between piston and cylinder multiplied by the parameter Relative friction factor. Regardless of which friction model is used, the friction force is not influenced by the inclination of the cylinder or the system pressure. The parameter Relative velocity near to zero is used by the internal state machine of the cylinder model and determines the velocity below which the piston is considered stuck.

The pressure in the chamber can be initialized by assigning start values to Pressure in chamber A. The parameter Dead volume determines the size of the parasitic volume which remains even if the plunger has reached the mechanical stops at the cylinder ends.

The volumetric losses due to external leakage are parameterized by providing the flow rate (External leakage: volume flow), associated pressure drop (External leakage: pressure difference) and the fluid density Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference for which these values were obtained.

### Parameters

TypeNameDefaultDescription
LengthcylinderDiameter0.1Inner diameter of cylinder
LengthplungerDiameter0.05Plunger diameter
LengthcylinderLength0.4Cylinder length
LengthplungerLength0.4Plunger length
Angleangle0Inclination angle
MassmassPlunger50Plunger mass
MassmassCylinder40Cylinder mass
RealfProp10000Velocity dependent friction
ForcefCoulomb250Constant friction/Coulomb force
ForcefBreakaway500Breakaway friction force
VelocityvM0.005Velocity parameter for Stribeck friction
BooleanrelFricfalseUse "relative friction factor" to calculate friction
RealrelFricFactor0Relative friction factor
VelocityvSmall1e-4Relative velocity near to zero
VolumeFlowRateleakageFlowRateExternal0External leakage: volume flow
PressureleakagePressureDiffExternal1e+7External leakage: pressure difference
DensityleakageReferenceDensity860Reference density for volume flow and pressure difference

### Connectors

TypeNameDescription
Flange_aflange_c
Flange_bflange_p
FluidPortfluidPortAHydraulic port A
output RealOutputstrokeOutRelative position of piston