Creating a Histogram

A histogram is a display of grouped frequency distributions, such as the number of particles traveling in particular velocity ranges.

 

Selecting Elements

The Select Element section is used to determine which elements to collect data from. You can select the group or type of elements.

Group Type
Particle     All or any individual particle type (as specified in the Creator).
Geometry All or any individual section (as specified in the Creator).
Contact All or any combination of specific particle types or geometry sections.
Collision     All or any combination of specific particle types or geometry sections.

Configuring the X-Axis

Click the X-axis tab and then select the attribute and component to plot on the X-axis. The attributes available in the list will depend on the elements previously selected. For more information on attributes, see Appendix A: Attribute Definitions.

The following table shows the attributes and components available for each element.

Element Attribute Components
Particle Angular velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Compressive force N/A
Diameter N/A
Distance     Define reference object*
Kinetic energy N/A
Mass N/A
Potential energy N/A
Residence time N/A
Rotational kinetic energy N/A
Time N/A
Torque     Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Total energy N/A
Total force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Volume N/A
Custom property Depends on number of elements
Geometry Time N/A
Contact Contact vector 1 Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Contact vector 2 Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Distance Define reference object*
Normal overlap N/A
Normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Tangential overlap N/A
Time     N/A
Custom property Depends on number of elements
Collision Average normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Average tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Distance N/A
Duration N/A
Maximum normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Maximum tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Normal energy loss N/A
Number of collisions N/A
Relative velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Relative velocity normal Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Relative velocity tangential Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Tangential energy loss N/A
Time N/A
Total energy loss N/A
Velocity element A** Magnitude, X, Y, Z
Velocity element B Magnitude, X, Y, Z

 

  • * If the attribute is set to Distance, you must define a point or plane from which the distance is measured. When distance is selected, the Define Reference Object section of the pane will be activated. Select Point or Plane and define its position and, for a plane, its distance from the origin.
  • ** The velocity of the first element in the collisions. Similarly, for the second element.

X and Y axes are related. The attribute you choose to measure on the X-axis will limit those available to measure on the Y-axis. Similarly, if the Y-axis is configured first, the attributes available on the X-axis will be limited.

Configuring the Y-Axis

Click the Y-axis tab and select the element attribute and component to be plotted on the Y-axis. The attributes available in the list will depend on the elements previously selected and the attribute being measured on the X-axis. You can select a component type for certain attributes. This is used to determine which value will be plotted for a particular attribute component. For example, the maximum, minimum, or average particle velocity. For more information about attributes, see Appendix A: Attribute Definitions.

The following table shows the range of attributes, components, and component types available for each element. 

Element Attribute Components Type
Geometry Angular Velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or CoG
Center of Mass Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min
Compressive force N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Distance     N/A Average, Max or Min
Pressure N/A Total Pressure, Max, Min
Torque (element) Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Total force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or CoG
Custom property Depends on no. of elements Average, Max, Min, or Total
Particle Angular velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Compressive force N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Diameter N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Distance     Define ref. object* Average, Max or Min
Kinetic energy N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Mass N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Number of particles N/A Total or Total in Range**
Potential energy N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Residence time N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Rotational kinetic energy N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Torque     Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Total energy N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Total force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Volume  N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Custom property Depends on no. of elements Average, Max, Min, or Total
Contact Contact vector 1 Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max or Min
Contact vector 2     Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max or Min
Distance Define ref. object* Average, Max or Min
Normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Normal overlap N/A Average, Max or Min
Number of contacts N/A Total or Total in Range**
Tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Tangential overlap N/A Average, Max or Min
Custom property Depends on no. of elements Average, Max, Min, or Total
Collision Average normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Average tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Distance Define ref. object* Average, Max or Min
Duration N/A Average, Max or Min
Maximum normal force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Maximum tangential force Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Normal energy loss N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Number of collisions N/A Total or Total in Range**
Relative velocity Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Relative velocity normal Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Relative velocity tangential Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Tangential energy loss N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Total energy loss N/A Average, Max, Min, or Total
Velocity of element A Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total
Velocity of element B Magnitude, X, Y, Z Average, Max, Min, or Total

 

* If the attribute is set to Distance, you must define a point or plane from which the distance is measured. When distance is selected, the Define Reference Object section of the pane will be activated. Select the point or plane from which the distance should be measured. A point is defined by its xyz position and a plane by its orientation and distance from the origin.

** When the axis is set to measure the number of particles or number of contacts, you can plot either the total number of particles/contacts or the total number in a defined range. For example, counting only those particles with a mass between 0.1kg and 0.2kg or velocity between 2m/s and 5m/s. When the Total in Range option is selected, the Secondary Attribute section of the pane is activated. Select the attribute and component and enter the maximum and minimum values of that range to restrict the range.

Configuring Graph Settings

You can configure the settings for elements in a particular Time Step or over a range of time steps.

Time Steps

By default, Current Time Step is selected. To modify the Current Time step, use the Current Time control in the Viewer control pane at the right of the screen. For example, the following histograms show the distribution of particles traveling in particular velocity ranges - one one Time step, so each particle is only counted once, and the second for a range of 100 time steps.

Unselect Current Time Step to set a different start and end time. Grayed-out time steps indicate partial saves and may not contain all the data you want to plot.

Axis Range

The X and Y axis ranges can be determined automatically (from the values of the attributes selected) or entered manually. The number of intervals on each axis should also be defined. A greater number of intervals increases the accuracy of the chart.

Display Options

Click the Display Options button to open the dialog box.

Title

Specify the graph title.

X-label, Y-label

Enter manually, if required. Can also be determined automatically.

Show grid

Turns the interval grid on and off.

Show average value

Turns the display of a horizontal line showing the average value on and off.

Show minimum value

Turns the display of a horizontal line showing the minimum value on and off.

Show maximum value

Turns the display of a horizontal line showing the maximum value on and off.

Creating the Graph

After the axes have been configured and the Time Step and display options set, you can create the graph.

Click Create Graph to draw the graph and Clear Graph  to clear it. If any setting is altered (including changing the units) click Create Graph again to view the modified graph.

To save the graph data, right-click the graph and then select Export as Text.

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